Every history book and every time-line mentions the Exodus. The Exodus and Moses are mentioned in the Gospels by Jesus, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, and by Baha’u’llah. People just assume it is a fact. That assumption is based solely on the story told in the Torah, but what if it is wrong? How would we know? The first step would be to research references outside the Torah. Unfortunately for those who believe the biblical account, there are no outside references even though many Christian, Jewish, Moslem and atheist archaeologists have been digging up the whole Middle East for a century looking for it.
Four Hundred Years of Slavery
The Torah states very precisely that there were 603,550 male Hebrews in the Exodus (see Numbers 1 & 2), which means we must guess as to how many men, women and children there were (anywhere from 2-6 million). If we just take the lowest number, then the two million Hebrew slaves were a large minority in Ancient Egypt (25-75% of the total population). No evidence of this huge enslaved minority has ever been found. Apparently, no one had ever owned one, no one had ever bought one, and no one had ever sold one. There are no records of any transactions which include them. No one even bragged about how many they owned on their tomb paintings. And most important of all, no Hebrew slaves were ever buried in Egypt. No matter if the bondage was 430 years, 215 years or just four generations, there is no evidence of the Hebrews in Egypt.
The Tenth Plague
There have been many who have tried to explain the Ten Plagues by using natural phenomena, but the 10th Plague is something else. Exodus 11:4-6 is quite clear about the horror which fell on Egypt. Every first born creature (human and animal) in all of Egypt died in one night of terror. Imagine if that happened today. Do you think the news media might mention it? There is no mention of it in Egyptian archaeology. Also, the first born is very important in Egyptian culture, as they are the ones who must perform the burial ritual so the parents’ souls will enter paradise.
So many, gone so fast would have devastated the whole nation. Yet, no one mentioned it in any writing from official state carvings to personal tombs and journals. Throughout Egypt there is nothing. There are also no mass burials for the tens of thousands of victims.
The Sinai Desert
The Sinai desert is very dry. There is very little weathering. There are very few visitors. A horde of two million people with domestic animals and all kinds of belongings would have left some trace in the deserts of Sinai (especially around Mt. Sinai where they were encamped for some time while Moses went up to get the Ten Commandments). It should be easy to find. Yet, there is no evidence of any latrines, no evidence of any kitchens, no evidence of any trash, and no evidence of any dead people buried (even though the entire Exodus generation had to die in the desert before they could reach the Promised Land due to the Golden Calf incident). No trace of this large city (twice the size of Rome at its height) moving through the entire Sinai Peninsula for 40 years. No trace of a small city either. No trace of any group large enough.
The Egyptian Occupation of Canaan
There is no mention of the Egyptian occupation of Canaan anywhere in the Bible. The ancient Egyptians had occupied the lands of Canaan and Syria for most of the second millennium BCE. Check any date for the Exodus in any book and you will see that the Hebrews had escaped from Egypt only to settle in Egypt. The Peace Treaty with Mitanni and the El Amarna tablets show that all Canaan was ruled by Egypt from Amenhotep II to Akhenaten. Ramses the Great and his son Merneptah fought campaigns there. The last pharaoh to fight a major campaign in Canaan was Ramses III who died around 1150 BCE. If the Hebrews were in Canaan at this time, then they would have had to deal with Egypt (their old oppressor). Yet, there is no mention of it in Egypt, and no mention of it in the Bible. Also, the Hebrews entered Canaan in a genocidal rage, but no word of this slaughter ever got back to Egypt (the land’s protector). It would seem that the writers of the Bible had no knowledge of the Egyptian occupation of Canaan.
The Merneptah Stele
The Merneptah Stele is a stone carving which proudly proclaims the great victories of the Pharaoh Merneptah during a campaign in Canaan. Along with many other victories over kings and cities, the Stele mentions the total annihilation of a tribe called the Israelites. It has been dated to around 1207 BCE. It is the oldest mentioning of the Israelites in archaeology. The problem with the Stele is that the Israelites are mentioned as a “people” (or tribe), and not a nation or city-state. The victory over the Israelites is more of a footnote among the other glory and plunder. It would appear that the Israelites were just a tribe of desert bandits who were plaguing the Egyptian trade routes. No matter who really won the battle, it is strange that the Egyptians write about this battle but it does not appear in the Bible.
The Hebrew language is one of the most studied languages due to its original usage in the Torah. The oldest known evidence of true Hebrew comes from around 800 BCE (which is well after the Exodus, Joshua, Judges, Saul, David and Solomon). Paleo-Hebrew dates to around 1000 BCE (the Gezer Calendar from around the time of David). Tradition says the Torah was written by Moses himself (c. 1400 BCE). Unfortunately, the language is not old enough. It would be very difficult to write a book in a language which has not been invented yet. The Israelites were probably still illiterate when Merneptah’s soldiers attacked (around 1207 BCE).
There is no Moses character in Egyptian archaeology. It is possible that he may have been erased from history. There have been many pharaohs who have tried to erase the past. Tutmosis III tried to erase his mother, Hatshepsut (who had usurped his throne). When she died, he claimed all her accomplishments as his own. Akhenaten and his followers tried to erase the god Amun (even from Akhenaten’s own father’s name, Amenhotep III). Later, Horemheb tried to erase the heretical Akhenaten and his successors, including Tutankhamen, while also claiming their accomplishments as his own. We know these things because it is very difficult to erase history from a stone face without leaving any evidence. There is no evidence of any Exodus related hackings.
The Walls of Jericho
There is no evidence of Jericho being inhabited (no ceramics, no building, etc.) during the last half of the second millennium BCE. In the Book of Joshua, Jericho was the first city the Hebrews conquered in Canaan. They collapsed the walls with a great trumpet blast, but the blast would have fallen on deaf ears as Jericho was destroyed by the chariot warriors who swept through the area around 1700 BCE. They also did not stay, as Jericho does not become inhabited again until around 900 BCE (well after the time of David & Solomon).
Do not trust me. Do not trust what is written here. Look it up for yourself. No one is trying to hide this from you. Look up Hebrew slaves in Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Israelites in Canaan. You will come to the same conclusion – the Exodus did not happen.