On Line Ancient Near Eastern Texts keyed to Britannica Online for Serious links to research on Babylonia. This material is keyed to links to the Britannica On Line Eddition for a coherent outline of the events recorded in the Ancient Near Eastern Texts.Brother’s History of Lewis County, TN. Good reading. This was once the FAR WEST! Swiss Roots – Redneck heritage: “Cave of the Bear Clan”
You may want to look at some reviews of MAX LUCADO. His radical views seem to support the ANCIENT-MODERN form or religion or a Spectacle of Worship. I helps see how Ancient Babylon religious views have suddenly become very popular. Some views on SUN worship related to SHAMASH. And Baptizing Santa by Rubel Shelly
Christians have been seeking to turn every symbol (mark IDOL) to the glory of God. Thus a midwinter festival to the s-u-n was converted into a day of rejoicing over the S-o-n of God. If Jesus is described by biblical writers as the “Sun of Righteousness” and God’s “true light coming into the world,” what could be more natural?
To those with Britannica Online Membership (Bm). They have SCRAMBLED their links and I am slowly updating them.
David’s Temple as a request to rule and worship like THE NATIONS. The Hebrew word goyim, “nations”, is a clerical error for Gutium or Guti, a neighbouring state which plays an important role throughout Babylonian history.
This page does not expand upon the fact that the primary “gods” were originally the erratic heavenly bodies including the Sun, Moon and the known planets. The world’s literature is aware of a much less stable world and the elements which controlled their lives were seen as living powers. Lesser gods were deified men and women who made it to god status because of some great invention of control devices such as canals, dikes, weapons or musical instruments.
The Bible also personifies God’s power by explaining His “Spirit” or Mind as hovering over the waters; God “walks upon the wings of the wind.” And His ministers are “wind, fire, earthquakes, etc.” Because God is invisible we see His work in the natural world. Job (27:1; 29:1) speaks of the creative events as “parables” and Jesus said that the mysteries of God were hidden in parables from the foundation of the world (Matthew 13). It is important to understand that mountains do not “praise” God and trees do not “clap their hands.”
Mesopotamian religion (BM)
Beliefs and practices of the Sumerians and Akkadians, and their successors, the Babylonians and Assyrians, who inhabited ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) in the millennia before the Christian era. These religious beliefs and practices form a single stream of tradition.
Four periods of Sumerian can be distinguished: Archaic Sumerian, Old or Classical Sumerian, New Sumerian, and Post-Sumerian.
Archaic Sumerian covered a period from about 3100 BC, when the first Sumerian records make their appearance, down to about 2500 BC. The earliest Sumerian writing is almost exclusively represented by texts of business and administrative character. There are also school texts in the form of simple exercises in writing signs and words. The Archaic Sumerian language is still very poorly understood, partly because of the difficulties surrounding the reading and interpretation of early Sumerian writing and partly because of the meagreness of sources.
Akkadian spread across an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf during the time of Sargon (Akkadian Sharrum-kin) of the Akkad dynasty, who reigned from about 2334 to about 2279 BC. By about 2000 Akkadian had supplanted Sumerian as the spoken language of southern Mesopotamia, although Sumerian remained in use as the written language of sacred literature
Sumerian in origin, it was added to and subtly modified by the Akkadians (Semites who emigrated into Mesopotamia from the west at the end of the 4th millennium BC), whose own beliefs were in large measure assimilated to, and integrated with, those of their new environment.
The Hurrians enter the orbit of ancient Middle Eastern civilization toward the end of the 3rd millennium BC. They arrived in Mesopotamia from the north or the east, but it is not known how long they had lived in the peripheral regions. There is a brief inscription in Hurrian language from the end of the period of Akkad, while that of King Arishen (or Atalshen) of Urkish and Nawar is written in Akkadian.
Amorite: member of an ancient Semitic-speaking people who dominated the history of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine from about 2000 to about 1600 BC. In the oldest cuneiform sources (c. 2400-c. 2000 BC), the Amorites were equated with the West, though their true place of origin was most likely Arabia, not Syria. They were troublesome nomads and were believed to be one of the causes of the downfall of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (c. 2112-c. 2004 BC).
The Kassites in Babylonia: The Kassites had settled by 1800 BC in what is now western Iran in the region of Hamadan-Kermanshah. The first to feel their forward thrust was Samsuiluna, who had to repel groups of Kassite invaders. Increasing numbers of Kassites gradually reached Babylonia and other parts of Mesopotamia. There they founded principalities, of which little is known. No inscription or document in the Kassite language has been preserved. Some 300 Kassite words have been found in Babylonian documents. Nor is much known about the social structure of the Kassites or their culture. There seems to have been no hereditary kingdom. Their religion was polytheistic; the names of some 30 gods are known.
Chaldea: also spelled CHALDAEA, Assyrian KALDU, BABYLONIAN KASDU, Hebrew KASDDIM, land in southern Babylonia (modern southern Iraq) frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. Strictly speaking, the name should be applied to the land bordering the head of the Persian Gulf between the Arabian desert and the Euphrates delta. Words related to the Chaldeans shows that the word is synonynous with “Astrologers, Magi, Sorcerers, and musical magicians” because of their discovery of the god-calling power of ringing brass or vibrating strings.
The Blue text links to the Britannica (BM) or to translated texts hosted on this site.Unless otherwise noted:
Gracious permission from: “Copyright J.A. Black, G. Cunningham, E. Robson, and G. Zlyomi 1998, 1999, 2000. The authors have asserted their moral rights.” Scholarly Versions at their Home Page
Akitu Festival At Ur: http://www.GatewaysToBabylon.com/religion/sumerianakitu.htm
AKKAD (BM) The first Babylonian city.
- ANU (BM)
AQHAT or Aqahat See DANIEL
ARURU (Mammi) (BM)
ASHUR (Assur) (BM)
BABYLON (Babil) (BM)
Bel and the Dragon may speak to modern performing clergy.
Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven Photos Added
CHALDEA (Chaldaea, Assy Kaldu, Bab Kasdu, Heb Kasddim) (BM)
Chronology and Images Off Site
DAG, DAGAN, Dagon (BM)
EA (ENKI) (BM)
- ENMEBARAGESI, king of Kish (BM)ENKI (EA)
- ENLIL See Bel
- ENMERKER (BM)
- ENUMA ELISH
- The Creation – Magian VersionEnmerkar and the Lord of Aratta
- The Babylonian Creation Epic All Tablets in One File: N.K.Sandars
- Tablet I, Tablet II, Tablet III, Tablet IV, Tablet V, Tablet VI, Tablet VII By Stephanie Dally
- Fragment describing the creation of animals.
- Tablet I, Tablet II, Tablet III, Tablet IV, Tablet V, Tablet VI, Tablet VII From George A. Barton
- Enuma Elish, The Fifty Names of Marduk, Tablet VIb – VII From E. A. Speiser uploaded
- Introduction, Tablet I, Tablet II, Tablet III, Tablet IV, Tablet V, Tablet VI, Tablet VII E. A. Speiser some not on internet
- ENSUHKESHDANNA See Enmerker Above
- ERECHERESHKIGAL (BM)
THE ERIDU GENESIS (BM)
- ESAGILA (BM)ETANA MYTH
- GARDEN (BM)Expulsion From the GardenGALAS, The demons
GESHTINANNA, GESTINNANA (Demi-god) (BM)
- GILGAMESH (BM)
- Translation by E. A. Speiser, in Ancient Near Eastern Texts (Princeton, 1950), pp. 60-72, as reprinted in Isaac Mendelsohn (ed.), Religions of the Ancient Near East, Library of Religion paperbook series (New York, 1955). PP. 100-6; notes by Mendelsohn
- http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/catlist.htmFlood Account From Nineveh 7th Century B.C.
- The Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic 11th tablet
- Another Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic
- Sumerian Flood Narrative From the Gilgamesh Epic
- Gilgamesh and Agga of Kish
- Gilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven Photos Added
- Flood Narrative
- The death of Gilgamesh
- Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the nether world
- Gilgamesh and Huwawa (version A) or Humbaba
- Gilgamesh and Huwawa (version B)
- GUDEA (BM) general background)GUGALANA
HAMMURABI King of Babylon 1848-1806 BC. (BM)
- HESOIDHesoid’s TheogonyHULLUPU TREE
Hullupu TreeHUMBABA (Humwawa)
- IGIGI (ee gee’ gee)INANNA (Inannu) (BM)
- PRAYER OF ENHEDUANNA -ADORATION OF INANNA OF UR
- Hullupu Tree
- The ME, Inanna – Ea – Gift of Wisdom and Music
- The Courtship of Inanna and Dumuzi BabCourtship.html
- The Exhaltation of Inana BabInanaB.html
- Inana’s descent to the nether world J.A. Black etal.
- Inanna Descent Wolkstein – KramerInana and Enki
- Inanna and Ebih
- Dumuzi is Presented to Inanna
- Inana and Shu-kale-tuda
- Dumuzid and Geshtin-ana
- The death of Dumuzi
- Dumuzid’s Dream
- Hymn from Inanna to Tammuz
- Hymn of Love from Inanna to Tammuz
- Inanna and Bilulu
- IMDUGUD See NINURTAISHKUR Married goddess Shala (BM)
- KI / Ninhursag (BM)EIGHT CHILDREN OF KI, THE??????KINGS (Sumerian)
- KINGU The dragon of chaos. See BelowKISH (BM)
KOSMOS (BM) Pythagoreanism
KUR The Underworld. (See Asag).
- LAHMU AND LAHAMU (BM)LAMU:
LEVIATHAN liweyathan (Hebrew) (BM
LILITH (Hebrew) (BM)
LUCIFER (Latin) (BM)
LUDLUL BEL NEMEQU (BM)
- LUGALBANDA (Mesop. hero) (BM)
- MARDUK ((BM))
- MARTUMarriage of MartuMASHU, Mount
- METhe ME, Inanna – Ea – Gift of Wisdom and MusicMESLAMTAEA (BM)
MESOPOTAMIAN CULT (BM)
- MUSIC OF THE SPHERES (BM)MUSIC
- NABU (BM)
- NAMMUNAM-SHUB begin here………
- NANNA-SIN Nanna-Suen (BM)
- NANSHE (BM)NERGAL (BM)
- NIBRULament for NibruNIMROD (BM)
- NINGAL (BM)Lament for the Destruction of Ur.NINGIRSU (BM)
- NINHAR (BM)
- NINHURSAG (BM) See Ki.
- NINLIL (BM)Enlil and NinlilNINMAH SEE NINHURSAG
- Ninurta and the Turtle
- Pabilsang’s (Ninurta) journey to Nibru
- Exploits of Ninurta
- The return of Ninurta to Nibru (Nippur)
- Ninurta’s fields
- NINUS (BM)NIPPUR (BM)
- NUSKU (BM)OANNES
- PABILSAG (BM)Pabilsang’s journey to NibruPAPSUKKEL
- SAMMU-RAMAT (BM)
- SEMIRAMIS (BM)
- SERPENT (BM)Index of ANE and other Documents on Serpent WorshipSHAMASH (BM)
- SHULGI (BM)
- SHULPAE (BM)SHURUPPAK (BM)
- SIDURI (BM)
- SIN (BM)
- Hymn to Sin – Moon God
- Shamash (Sun god), Hymn To
- Hymn to Nannar/Sin
- Prayer to Sin – The Moon God
- Prayer of Ashurbanipal to Shamash (the sun god)
- EIGHT CHILDREN OF KIEKUR (BM)
Enlil in the E-kur (Enlil A)ELLIL (Illil, Sumerian Enlil)
- CULT OF TAMMUZ (BM)
- TIAMAT (BM)TOBIT (BM)
- TOWER OF BABEL (babel, gate of God), (BM)
- UNDERWORLDIshtar Descent to the Nether worldUR (BM)
- UR-NAMMU (BM)
- URUK (BM)UTNAPISHTIM (BM)
UTU see Shamash
- YAH (BM)ZARPANIT (BM)
The Temple HymnsZISUTRA
- The Best Collection of Links to Gilgamesh and History 3010 Professor Lee Huddleston
- Comprehensive Index of Myths and Legends
- Gateway to Babylon
- Rutgers University Virtual Religion Index
- Iraq4You: News, events, etc—-Iraq Religions —Mandaean Christians
- U-Penn resources
- Yahoo Mesopotamia
- Yahoo Babylonia
- The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature—All Ancient Near Eastern Texts
- Barton , George, A. Archaeology and the Bible, 7th Edition
- SINUHE (BM)
TALE of SINUHESHAMBAT