Prior to the 21 st century, neither biblical historian nor Egyptologist had been able to locate the time period of Biblical Joseph-the first Israelite in Egypt, the pharaoh who elevated Joseph to such high status and the exact date of the Exodus. No doubt that if there were a significant number of Hebrews and Israelites in Egypt and then there were none, only two outcomes could have occurred – genocide or mass Exodus. The second scenario is preferred but requires detailed research to find such an Exodus event.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt
and the Date of the Exodus
Prior to the 21st century, neither biblical historian nor Egyptologist had been able to locate the time period of Biblical
Joseph – the first Israelite in Egypt, the pharaoh who elevated Joseph to such high status and the exact date of the Exodus.
No doubt that if there were a significant number of Hebrews and Israelites in Egypt and then there were none, only two
outcomes could have occurred – genocide or mass Exodus. The second scenario is preferred but requires detailed
research to find such an Exodus event.
Present-day historians have used the chronology given in I Kings 6, which relates that Solomon‟s Temple began to be
built in his 4th year of reign when the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt AFTER “four hundred eighty
years…” (*1*). With high confidence the date of Solomon‟s Year 4 is set at ca. 966BC. Biblical literalists use the well
documented Year 4 of Solomon to add on 480 years to get back to 1446BC to claim the time frame of the Exodus only to
continually be wrought with disappointment when no evidence is found during that time period to substantiate an Exodus
of the Hebrews and Israelites1 out of Egypt after their captivity. This literal one dimensional thinking has led to a path of
disappointment filled with roadblocks because they go too far back in time and end up in an era where there is no
archeological or written record of the Israelites and Hebrews in Egypt. They come up with empty, unsuccessful
discoveries when trying to find out when Joseph lived in Egypt, who were the pharaohs during his time and the later
pharaohs of the Exodus generations later. The root cause of the unsuccessful discovery has been due to the same error
used in calculating the length of a historical “year”. Biblical researchers in particular, have not taken into account how a
year was calculated differently by the Israelite biblical scribes millennia ago when they were re-writing their history after
being freed by the Persian King Cyrus the Great. I offer the following profound insights into that Exodus-to-Temple
building calculation in correcting the time frame:
That evidence that the ancient Israelites used two calendars of 6 months per year in length is still recognized today
with the “First of Nisan” and 6 months later in Tishri with “Rosh Hashanah”, therefore the length of time from
Exodus to Solomon‟s temple is not 480 (Gregorian or Julian Calendar)“Solar” years but 240 “Solar” years.
That the evidence of the ancient Israelite scribes using 40 years as the age of a “generation” and also using it as a
default age or time period has been misinterpreted by a factor of two and should be correctly translated as 20
“solar” years as the age of a generation according to our present-day understanding of time.
That this “Re–calculation” of the time period given in I Kings 6 should now lead to the time period of the Exodus
at the conclusion of the 19th Dynasty ca.1200 BC and not in the middle of the 18th Dynasty ca. 1446 BC.
Before the divided Kingdom only one calendar was needed but after the division, Judah continued to use the calendar
based on its beginning in Tishri (Ethanim) while Israel started to use a calendar based on its beginning in Nisan (Aviv).
After the exile from Babylon, both were used in the restoration of texts with a year meant to be interpreted as a year of 6
months/182 days. Later editors and biblical historians mistakenly interpret these amount of 6-month “years” to reference
a 12-month/365 day year and thereby have doubled the amount of time elapsed of the following:
The elapsed time the Israelites spent in Egypt;
The elapsed time of the period of the Judges;
The elapsed time of the genealogy of the Israelite tribe of Judah between the 12 generations from Judah (son of
Jacob-Israel) to Solomon (son of David) and
The elapsed time between the Exodus and the building of Solomon‟s Temple.
The re-calculated time periods provide three main reasons to prove why the nation of Israel had not formed until
well after the conclusion of Egypt‟s 19th dynasty:
1 All Israelites are Hebrews but not all Hebrews are Israelites.
ii Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
Between the 240-year time period from Thutmose III until the middle of the reign of Merenptah, Egypt was in
complete control of Canaan, there were NO opportunities for the rise of an individual nation to rule as a sovereign
until the reign of Ramesses III. Four superpowers dominated Canaan and Western Asia during this time – Egypt,
Assyria, Babylon and The Hittites.
The Victory Stela of 19th Dynasty Pharaoh Merenptah, now commonly known as the “Israeli Stela”, announces
the arrival of a “Peoples” called Israelites. It is the first mention of the Israelites outside of the Bible.
The rise of the Philistines and their settlement in Palestine did not occur until the defeat of the Sea Peoples by
Ramesses III. All biblical references to the Philistines and their encounters with Israel must come after this era.
Putting Joseph in the place of the Egyptian figure Yuya during the reigns of Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III now brings
to light much of the enigmatic chronology of the Israelites in Egypt, the origin of the enslavement of the Hebrew peoples
during Egypt‟s war with Hatti and finally their liberation and Exodus out of Egypt some 220 after Yuya-Joseph‟s entrance
into Egypt. This Exodus occurred some 230 years before Solomon‟s Temple building. I propose that there were more
than one Exodus out of Egypt and that as many as three Exodus events occurred within a 20 year period. Today the
astronomical events that precede the Passover are the Vernal (spring) Equinox followed by the Full moon. I propose that
two of these three exodus events did occur near a full moon following the vernal equinox but that the main exodus
occurred during a NEW MOON following the Autumn Equinox. It is after this “Neomenia” event in which a pharaoh can
be proven to have died. I don‟t doubt that in some circles, serious objections will occur as beliefs and religious
convictions held for so long by historians are a hard wall to break down. I do hope that with the preponderance of the
evidence presented here that readers will at least examine the facts for themselves and come to their own conclusions.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea iii
Jacquet‟s Proposed Chronology for the 19th Dynasty in Egypt………………………………………………. v
Egyptian Calendar Ephemeris #12: Late Ramesses II to early Ramesses III: 1216BC – 1185BC…. vi
Biblical Joseph‟s Sojourn in Egypt as “YuYa” and the First Israelite in Egypt…………………….. 1
Aram and Mitanni, the Possible Geographic Origins of Abraham and the Hebrews ……………. 3
The Rekhyt bird – the symbol of the foreign visitor! …………………………………………….. 6
Joseph‟s Noble Lineage as “Prince of Egypt” …………..………..…………………………….… 6
Joseph‟s father and brothers come to Egypt as a group of 70 souls …………………………………. 7
The traditional Year of 1446BC as the Year of the Exodus …………………………………………. 9
A Biblical review of the length of time of the Sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt ………………... 9
Biblical chronological calculations of the Israelites sojourn in Canaan AND in Egypt …………… 10
The ancient calendar and its relationship to biblical chronological calculations ………….. 11
When is the Jewish New Year? …………….………………………………….…………. 13
The time span from the year of the Exodus to Solomon‟s Temple re–examined…………………. 16
The error of the biblical editors……………………… ………………………………….. 17
Restoration of the sacred texts …………………………………………………………… 18
The re-computation of the Exodus event …………………………………………………. 20
Origin of the Philistines………………………………………….. ……………………….…………. 22
The MerenPtah stele a.k.a. “The Israeli Stele”…..………………………….………….…………. 24
Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Charts, Tables, Illustrations and Photos
Egyptian Calendar Ephemeris #12: Late Ramesses II to early Ramesses III …………………… vi
Map of Ancient Aram Nahariam and Paddam Aram ……………………………………………. 3
The Rekhet bird depicted on Amenhotep III and Tutankhamun stelae …………………………………. 6
The synchronized Egyptian New Year and the Spring Equinox New Year
adopted by Jeroboam and the Northern Tribes …………………………………………. 14
The Gezer Calendar monthly order and the ancient tablet in the Phoenician script .……………. 14
Akhenaten‟s Aten Temple as the blueprint for Solomon‟s Temple ………..……………………………. 15
Merenptah‟s “Victory Stela” aka “Israel Stela” deciphered ……………………………………... 25
iv Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt
and the Date of the Exodus
Researched and written by Russell Jacquet-Acea
Seattle School District
An Excerpt from the book
“Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt”
(A complete Investigation into unsolved Mysteries of the 18th Dynasty‟s Amarna Age in Egypt)
All Rights Reserved
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea v
Jacquet’s Proposed Chronology for the 19th Dynasty in Egypt
Pharaoh Accession and death dates Total years and months
(18th Dynasty continued…)
Merytaten II Akhet (-1322) to early II Peret (-1320) 2 years, 3 months
Tutankhamun Early II Peret (-1320) to IV Peret (-1310) 9 years, 2 months
Aya IV Peret (-1310) to II Akhet (-1306) 4 years, 3 – 6 months
Horemheb II Akhet 15 (-1306) to early II Peret 5 (-1293) 13 years, 4 – 7 months
Horemheb/Haramhab was no doubt related to the Royal “Atenist” family as was Ramesses I. They were
likely cousins with a common paternal grandfather with Horemheb being the older of the two military pharaohs.
Horemheb has to be the link between the two dynastic families and often appears to many as the founder of the 19th
dynasty instead of representing the last of the 18th dynasty pharaohs to many Egyptian scholars.
Ramesses I II Peret 6 (-1293)2 to III Shemu 23 (-1291) 1 year, 5 – 7 months,
Seti I III Shemu 24 (-1291) to III Shemu 26 (-1278) 12 years, 363 days (13 yrs, 2 days Egyptian)
Ramesses II III Shemu 27 (-1278) to II Akhet 9 (-1212) 66 years, 2 months
Merenptah II Akhet 10 (-1212) to ca. III Shemu (-1202) 9 years, 9 months
Amenmesse III Shemu 18 (-1202) to III Shemu 29 (-1199) 3 years, 11 days (rival reign)
Seti II III Peret 2 (-1202) to I Peret 2 (-1196) 5 years, 10 months (rival reign)
Siptah III Peret 7 (-1196) to II Akhet 12 (-1190) 6 years, 9 months (co reign)
Twosret III Peret 7 (-1196) and II Akhet 13 (-1190) to ca. -1186 7 years, 10 months? – 8 years 5 months?
(co reign and rival reign)
Setnakht II Shemu 10 (-1187) to I Shemu 25 (-1184) 2 years, 11 ½ months (rival reign)
Ramesses III I Shemu 26 (-1184) to III Shemu 14 (-1153) 31 years, 1 month, 19 days
2 Scientific or astronomical years are used for the calendar years here and are similar to a number line using zero “0” as the middle point between plus (+) years and minus (-) years. To calculate for the corresponding non-
secular, historical “BC” or “BCE” years, add one year to the minus year and eliminate the minus sign. For example, Ramesses II (The Great) reigned from -1278 (1279BC) to -1212 (1213BC).
vi Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
Jacquet’s Egyptian Calendar 12 “of Eight Pharaohs”: Ramesses II (late) to Ramesses III (early): 1216BC to 1185BC
JulianYear -1215 -1214 -1213 -1212 -1211 -1210 -1209 -1208 -1207 -1206 -1205 -1204 -1203 -1202 -1201 -1200 -1199 -1198 -1197 -1196 -1195 -1194 -1193 -1192 -1191 -1190 -1189 -1188 -1187 -1186 -1185
1 Akhet I 23.June 23 22.June 22 22 21 21 21 21 20 June 20 20 19 June 19 19 18 June 18 18 17 June 17 17 16 June 16 16
5Year “Calendar of EIGHT Pharaohs” Year 7 Rival
10 64 65 66 67 Compiled by R. Jacquet 2015 Rival Reign I Akhet 23 Reign
15 last attested date u = Possible Exodus date with Earliest temple between
20 is Corn tax, Year 67, AmunMesse
Foundation Setnakht &
I Akhet 18
DEATH of I Akhet 23
1 Akhet II 23.July
21 21 20.July 20 20 19.July 19 19 18 18 18 18 17.July 17 17 16.July 16 16
5ACCESSION Year 2 Year 5 II Akhet 12
10 of 2 3 Year 4 Year5 Year 6 7 8 9 Year10 Year II Akhet 10 II Akhet Death
15 MERENPTAH 1visit to burial of of
20 II Akhet 10 Buhen Theban Governess Siptah
25 stela Necropolis Coup
22 22 21.Aug 21 21 20.Aug 20 20 19.Aug 19 19 18.Aug 18 18 17 17 17 17 16.Aug 16 16 15 d’etat 15
5 NILE Year 2 ?
10 Inundation III Akhet 12 Death
15 Ceremony Year order to begin ‘TROY ? Of
20 on III Akhet 3 10 Seti II tomb TAKEN’ Twosret
25 (23 August) Papyrus by ? Or
21 21 20.sep 20 20 19.Sep 19 19 18 Sallier I 17.Sep 17 17 16 16 16 16 15.Sep 15 Greeks ousted by 14
5 IV Akhet 7 Rival Reign 4.Oct Solstice Setnakht
10 total highest with 9.October IV Akhet 22 END of
15 LUNAR attested AmunMesse *Solar* Burial 19th
20 Eclipse date *Eclipse* of Dynasty
25 I Peret 2 Siptah
1 Peret I 21.Oct 21 20.Oct 20 20 19.Oct 19 19 18.Oct 18 18 17.Oct 17 *Death of 16
15 Year 15 15 14.Oct 14
530.Oct Year 2 Seti II 3456789Beginning
10 SOLAR I Peret 8 Accession of Continued of 20th
15 ECLIPSE order to begin Siptah reign of Dynasty
20 GRW Twosret tomb I Peret 19 Year 6 Queen
25 Rival Reign Police Chief Doc. Twosret Setnakht
1 Peret II 20.Nov 20 19.Nov 19 19 18.Nov 18 18 17.Nov 17 17 16.Nov 16 16 15.Nov 15 15 14.Nov 14 14 13.Nov 13 13
10 7AmunMesse with
15 Dismissal of (II Peret 29 – III Peret 6)
Year Year as Regent Sole Rule
25 Upheaval Seti II 3456
1Peret III 20.Dec 20 19.Dec 19 19 18.Dec 18 18 17 17 17 17
16 16 16 15 15 15 15 14.Dec 14 14 13.Dec 13 13
5Vizier III Peret 11
10 Year Panehsy and Burial of
15 5 Treasurer Seti II Setnakht
20 Tjay Silsila Doc.
25 Dismissed IV Prt 1
1Peret IV 19.Jan 19 18.Jan 18 18 17.Jan 17 17
15.Jan 15 15 14.Jan 14 14 13.Jan 13 13 12.Jan 12 12
5Viceroy Rival Reign
10 Year Messuy with
AmunMesse Year 1
20 Khaemtjitry IV Peret 21
Work Journal doc.
1 Shemu I 18.Feb 18 17.Feb 17 17 16.Feb 16 16 15.Feb 15 15 14.Feb 14 14 13.Feb 13 13 12.Feb 12 12 11.Feb Setnakht
5Seti II was Year 3
10 Year departs I Shemu 25
15 5for war vs 29.Feb Ramses III
20 Assyria Accession
25 Year 5 attack by & Cyprus I shemu 26
1Shemu II 20.March 19.Mar 19 19 Ribu Chief 18 17.Mar 17 17 16.Mar 16 16 15.Mar 15 15 14.Mar 14 14 13 II Shemu 10 12.Mar
5 and Sheklesh Rival Reign Year 6, II Shemu 6 Accession
10 2^April with Hori 123RAM
15 Year 5 Spring Equinox AmunMesse Appointed Vizier of Setnakht III
20 Israeli Stele Year 6, II Shemu 25 Year2 II Shemu10
25 of III Shemu 3 Total Lunar Amun sailed into Thebes Year 7 Twosret’s Elephantine stela
19 18.Apr = 19 April -1207 Eclipse 16 16 16 15.Apr 15 15 14.Apr 14 14 13.Apr 13 II Shemu28 Mortuary
III Shemu 9 “Feast” Foundation date of
10 uMerenPtah Treason Prisoners of the valley block dated Setnakht
15 Nubian Revolt III Shemu 18 Year 4 case Escape Year 5 Year 8, RAM
20 Ramesses II 6.May Accession of III Shemu 29 Chancellor
II Shemu 29
25 Accession date Nubian Revolt Amenmesse
Last attested date
1Shemu IV 19.May 18.May 18 18 17 IV SHEMU 1 16.May 16 16 15
15 15 14.May 14 14 13 Execution 12.May 12.May
5Year 66 67 = 17May Year 8 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 of Reign on III Shemu 27 Rival
10 Shasu for Amenmesse Reign RAM
15 31.May visit to Sole rule between III
20 Delta for Seti II Setnakht
25 10.Jun region Compiled by R. Jacquet 2015©Twosret
5HolyDays 18-22June 17 June – 21 June 16 June – 20 June 15 June – 19 June 14 June – 18 June 13 June – 17 June 12 June – 16 June 11 June – 15 June 10-14
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt
and the Date of the Exodus
The Biblical story of Joseph in Egypt, the enslavement of the Hebrews and the Israelites and their Exodus out of Egypt are
some of the most intriguing biblical stories. But just how much of it can be proven to be true? By faith alone many have
accepted the stories as fact while others require archeological evidence and proof through ancient written records. These
events such as Joseph‟s entrance into Egypt and his rise to power as Governor, the later enslavement of his people, their
liberation in the story of the Exodus that is still celebrated today by many during Passover, the conquering of Canaan
culminating with the rise of the Israelite Nation have been events that are causes for heated debates between the biblical
world and the archeological world. On one side we have those who believe that the Bible should be the unequaled source
of dating while on the other hand are those who use ancient archaeology to date events. These particular biblical events
have been investigated countless times by both sacred and secular researchers with no clear consensus of the validity of
those stories. Other than Biblical sources what are the ancient texts and the archeological evidence to confirm those
events? The field of Archaeology has been a historical reliability in solving mysteries and mythical stories from ancient
history and we often look there for the latest discoveries. As I presently write, archeological discoveries are being made.
A sunken ancient ship “The Uluburum”, discovered off the coast of Southwest Turkey near Kas heading for the Aegean
contained tin from Assyria, copper from Cypress, ebony from Africa and a gold scarab with the cartouche of Queen
Nefertiti proving that international trade existed during her time. Artifacts with the cartouche of Pharaoh Twosret, wife of
Seti II, were found in destroyed cities in Canaan verifying the destruction of those cities to have been just after her brief
three-year reign ca. 1188BC (*312*). For centuries, Homer‟s story of the city of Troy and the Trojan War were believed
to be a myth. We now have conclusive archeological evidence along with written texts confirming such a place did exist
and that a great war centered around a Trojan Civilization did occur which ended sometime ca. 1190BC during the reign
of Twosret, the era I have concluded to have been the same era as the Israelite/Hebrew Exodus out of Egypt. This
research will hopefully provide some insight as to if these biblical events actually occurred and when in history these
events should be chronologically placed and why and how they happened. While presenting the proof to explain and
defend my first thesis that Biblical Joseph was the Egyptian Yuya and the evidence for Joseph making his appearance as
the first Israelite in Egypt, his influence with the Atenist movement that followed, an Exodus that occurred some 200
years after his arrival into Egypt and the rise of the Nation of Israel, it will also be necessary to examine the conflicts
between Egyptian and Biblical chronologies as it relates and translates to the ancient Julian Calendar which is how we still
measure the ancient past.
Biblical Joseph’s Sojourn in Egypt as “YuYa” and the First Israelite in Egypt
By bringing related historical facts and biblical stories together, all of the possible outcomes have been weighed allowing
me to conclude which outcomes are the most likely ones to be true. My first thesis lead to the conclusion that Joseph, at
age 10, entered Egypt ca. 1408 BC as part of the captive “Northerners” during Amenhotep II‟s military campaigns in
Canaan, Syria and Mitanni. I believe I have provided the overwhelming proof that the Biblical Joseph is to be identified
with the Egyptian Vizier Yuya, husband of Tuya and father to Tiya and Aya (*311*), predecessors to the Atenist
movement in 18th Dynasty Egypt. The military campaigns of Amenhotep II would have brought Joseph to Egypt during
the time of Amenhotep‟s Year 7 and Year 9 military campaigns up north in Syria and Mitanni. Amenhotep boasts on his
Memphis Stela the bringing back of “3600 Apiru and 15,200 Shasu10” to Egypt as part of his war booty. His Year 7
campaign saw him fight against Mitanni leading to the belief that some of the captives were from that area as well as the
Syrian area south-east of Mitanni (*311*). Once in Egypt as a slave, servant or free man during the reign of Pharaoh
Amenhotep II, Joseph became immersed in its Egyptian culture while keeping his devotion to the God Yahweh.
10 The “Shasu of Yahweh” text of Amenhotep III at the Soleb Temple is the earliest hieroglyphic rendering related to the Hebrew Tetragrammaton
“YHVH” = Yahweh. K. Van Der Toorn concludes that “by the 14th century BC, before the cult of Yahweh had reached Israel, groups of Edomite
and Midianites worshipped Yahweh as their God”. The Shasu are sometimes shown hieroglyphically with the determinative for a land or country
and sometimes just as an ethnic group of peoples. At Amenhotep III‟s Soleb Temple in Nubia, they were not shown with a determinative (*131*).
2 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
According to the biblical story, as a dreamer Joseph was persecuted by his Israelite brothers who sold him into slavery to
the Egyptians via Ishmaelite traders going to Egypt. Joseph served and was educated in the house of a member of the
Royal Family named Potiphar who was Military Leader and possibly a Vizier for Pharaoh. Joseph later found himself in
trouble after being accused of sexual misconduct by Potiphar‟s wife and was sent to the king‟s prison later to be freed
from prison (ca. 1388BC) by interpreting Pharaoh‟s dreams who I have identified as the Dreamer-Pharaoh Thutmose IV.
Joseph then rose to the top of Egyptian government as Vizier of Northern Egypt, Military General, Priest and Ruler of
Egypt as Regent for the young boy Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Joseph was known by his Egyptian name of Yuya which was
in honor of the God he primarily served named Yahweh. YUYA WAS HIS EGYPTIAN NAME FOR “YUSEF OF
YAHWEH”. His God was honored as part of his name just like every other important Egyptian did.
YUYA WAS JOSEPH, THE SON OF JACOB OF THE TRIBE OF ISRAEL EITHER SOLD
INTO SLAVERY BY HIS BROTHERS OR BROUGHT TO EGYPT AS A ROYAL SERVANT
DURING AMENHOTEP II‟s MILITARY CAMPAIGNS IN CANAAN, SYRIA AND MITANNI!
One of the many influences Joseph may have had on Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV was being the first to open up
friendly diplomatic relationships with the former enemy Kingdom of Mitanni. Since the early days of the 18th Dynasty,
Egypt had been an enemy to Mitanni but after Amenhotep‟s Year 9 campaign, hostilities between the two nations cease.
Amenhotep II‟s son Thutmose IV would succeed his father and marry the daughter of the Mitanni King and I believe this
was because Mitanni, as well as the Ugarit region and Southern Hatti, were the origins of Joseph‟s Israelite and Hebrew
people and Yuya-Joseph had now become the diplomatic peaceful link between Egypt and Mitanni.
Joseph marries Asenath, the daughter of an Egyptian High Priest and she converts to Joseph‟s religion and takes on the
name of “Tuya” in honor of his God Yahweh. Their first child was a daughter they named Tiya, again in honor of
Yahweh. When Thutmose IV died in his mid-twenties Yuya-Joseph would become the step-father of Thutmose IV‟s
young son Amenhotep III becoming “Father of Pharaoh” (Gen.45:8). This new revelation of the identity of the Egyptian
Yuya as the Biblical Joseph is being examined by many researchers. Islamic writer and historian Ahmed Osman has to be
given credit as the first to dare to say the connection between the two were one and the same. Egyptologist quickly
denounced him. Osman had tried to gain permission from the Cairo Museum to examine the mummy of Yuya but was
refused permission to do so. In reference to the four “Amarna Era Israelite Pharaohs” who followed Amenhotep III, The
curator of the museum asked Mr. Osman, “Why do you want to prove that four of our pharaohs had Jewish blood?” Mr.
Osman supposedly replied, “I am not trying to prove anything. But if it is a fact, why hide it? And what is wrong with
Jewish blood anyway?” (*152*) The four „male‟ Israelite Amarna pharaohs, and the two „female‟ Israelite Amarna
pharaohs who reigned in between them – Akhenaten, Nefertiti, Smenkhkare, Merytaten, Tutankhamun and Aya are the six
pharaohs whose names were later blotted out and omitted from Seti I‟s Kings list and are those who the curator was
Joseph as the Vizier Yuya and Regent to Amenhotep III rules Egypt for a certain amount of years until Amenhotep III
becomes old enough to rule on his own. Amenhotep III marries Yuya-Joseph‟s daughter Tiya ca. 1376 – 1375 BC when
both become about age 12, solidifying Joseph‟s title as “Father of Pharaoh”. Yuya was called “Itnetjer” or “God‟s
Father”. It is Yuya-Joseph‟s monotheistic influence which leads to the revolution in monotheism in Egypt expressed at
its height as Atenism by Yuya-Joseph‟s grandson Akhenaten. That revolution was to blame for the many problems that
followed including war and plague many years later for Egypt. The Israelites and captured Hebrews as prisoners of war
were blamed for much of the turmoil in Egypt and were later forced into re-building the former Hyksos fortress at Avaris
while held in captivity inside there during the reign of Ramesses II (1279 – 1213BC), when he moved the Capital city
there re-building and re-naming it Pi-Ramesses. He also had the city of Pi-Thom built that was started by his father Seti I
who, considering the old ages of the three previous pharaohs – Ramesses I, Horemheb and Aya, it was Seti I who was the
Pharaoh “Who Knew not Joseph”. Not until the period of 1208 – 1188 BC would the Israelites leave Egypt and wander
into the wilderness of the Sinai Peninsula some 200 years after Joseph entered Egypt. This was a time of war – The
Trojan War! Catastrophe for many nations followed causing their collapse bringing about the end of the Bronze Age
Civilization. No more were The Mycenaean, The Hittites, The Trojans, the great Ugarit City and the great City States in
11 As was done with “Seti‟s Kings List”, the Kings list on the “Saqqara Tablet” omits the same pharaohs. The tablet was found in the Saqqara tomb
of one of Ramesses II‟s officials named Tjenry. On the tablet Pharaoh Amenhotep III (#54), is followed by Pharaoh Horemheb (#55). The six
Pharaohs in between them were omitted as part of 19th Dynasty Egypt‟s attempt to blot them out of history as illegitimate rulers.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 3
Canaan! These great nations, city states and cultures, interdependent upon each other through international trade suffered
a steep decline when war occurred and then a complete collapse when drought, famine and the Sea People Invaders swept
through which was then followed by utter destruction when the earthquake storms rocked the Aegean, Anatolia, Syria and
“…Perhaps the inhabitants could have survived one disaster, such as an earthquake or drought, but they
could not survive the combined effects of earthquake, drought, and invaders all occurring in rapid
succession. A “domino effect” then ensued, in which the disintegration of one civilization led to the fall
of the others…” (*312*)
“Deir Alla (in Jordan) may have been a sanctuary not a city; it was destroyed by a violent earthquake a
little after 1200, since a faience vase with a cartouche of Tausert, the widow of Seti II, last Pharaoh of the
19th dynasty, was found on a floor burnt in the earthquake that destroyed it.” (*205*)
After civilization in Canaan and the Levant region was highly disrupted or destroyed, it allowed the opening up of the
lands for the Israelites to come into Canaan, re-populate and control the region either by force or by peaceful merger with
the surrounding cultures. This time period of the 12th century BC after the collapse of the Bronze Age ca. 1177BC was
the time the Israelites could conquer Canaan and form a new nation, NOT way back in 1446BC! I will present the details
of why and how the biblical literalists have miscalculated by a factor of two the 480 year period from the Exodus to
Solomon when 240 years is really what the time frame was as we calculate the duration of a year in our current era.
Aram and Mitanni, the Possible Geographic Origins of Abraham and the Hebrews
Aram-Naharaim or “Aram of Two Rivers” is mentioned in the bible five times and the term is commonly identified with
Nahrima which corresponds as a geographical description of the Kingdom of Mitanni. The Amarna letters clearly show
that the Egyptians identified the Mitannians as the “Naharin” (*11*). This most likely originates from the knowledge that
the Upper Euphrates River was called “N-h-r-n” by the Egyptians. In Genesis, Aram-Naharaim is used somewhat
interchangeable with the names Paddan-Aram and Haran to denote the place where Abraham settled with his father
Terah‟s family after leaving Ur of the Chaldees while en route to Canaan (Gen. 11:31)12. The location of Haran and
Paddan-Aram would have been within the territory of the Mitanni Empire. Paddan Aram in Aramaic means “the field of
Aram” and the name may correspond to the Hebrew “sedeh Aram,” or “field of Aram”. Abraham‟s nephew Bethuel, the
son of his brother Nahor, was the father of Laban and Rebekah. They lived in Padan-Aram;
“And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife,
the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padan-aram, the sister
to Laban the Syrian.” (Gen. 25:20).
Abraham‟s son Isaac and his wife Rebekah sent their soon Jacob there
to Padan-Aram, away from his twin brother Esau, to take refuge and
to marry a niece of Rebekah rather than marry a Canaanite or daughter
of Ishmael as Esau had done (Gen. 28:1). It was there in Padan-Aram
where Jacob worked for Laban, amassing livestock and wealth while
fathering most or all of his sons. This gives us a definite link between
12 Because of the locality of the city of Haran, (also the name of Abraham‟s brother) with nearby villages of “Nahor” and “Serug”, (grandparents
of Abraham), which still keep those names, I believe that this must be the area of Abraham‟s birthplace. Since the town of “Urfa” (aka Sanliurfa) is
20 miles north of Haran and the town of Urfa is where many Moslems presently pilgrimage to visit a cave believed to be the birthplace of Abraham, I
believe the city of Urfa is a definite possibility. Urfa was known earlier as “Ursu” in Hittite documents in 2000BC and around the year 300BC it was
named Edessa. Also interesting is that the ancient ruin site of Gobekli Tepe, is just 5 kilometers (3 miles) to the NE of Urfa. Gobekli Tepe appears
to contain the oldest evidence ofany civilization in history with artifacts and monuments dating back to 10,000BC!Genesis 12:28 tells us that
“Haran died…in the land of his nativity, in Ur”. There is also the ancient city of Urkesh, east of Haran, said to be the origin of the Hurrians. North
of this same area south of the Black Sea with Mt. Ararat on its eastern territory was the ancient Kingdom of Urartu where archaeologists and biblical
historians believe to be found the key to finding Noah‟s Ark! Clearly there is a link to Abraham‟s family in this area. Ur (of the Chaldeans) in
southern Mesopotamia cannot be the only “Ur” in this region of Eastern Turkey and Mesopotamia! The existence and rule of the Chaldeans in
Babylon did not occur until the late 7th century BC and there is still some dispute as to whether the Hebrew word “Kaśdim” translated in the
Septuagint as “Chaldean” in fact means so. After defeating the Assyrians and the Egyptians in the final battle at Harran in 608 BC, this “Neo–
Babylonian” Chaldean Empire, led by its first King Nabopolassar, did in fact rule territories from the Levant to Assyria that included the former
territory of the Mitanni Empire so perhaps the Biblical Scribes re-writing their history soon after this time were confused as to its location and the
ruling power over that location. It would be Nabopolassar‟s son and successor Nebuchadnezzar II who would capture Jerusalem and Judah and carry
off its King Jehoiakim to Babylon (II Chron.36:6) a decade later.
4 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
Abraham‟s people and the Kingdom of Mitanni which later became a strong ally of the Egyptian Empire in the late 18th
dynasty, securing the alliance when Mitanni royal women married four successive pharaohs – Amenhotep II, Thutmose
IV, Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. It was after Jacob left Haran that he went into the land of Canaan and the town of
Shechem where he and his sons leveled the town of Shechem in revenge for Jacob‟s daughter Diana being raped. Now
with what army and military force did Jacob and his sons come there with? Or are we to believe that the sons of Jacob
alone plundered and captured the city with no other military force? Was Abraham and his sons playing the role of vassal
princes in Mitanni or Syria? Several biblical passages treat Abraham as if he was a ruler or king over his land. Could this
possibly be the origin and the explanation of the power of the Hibaru/Hapiru forces that roamed the hillsides of Syria
bordering Hititte, Mitanni and Canaanite lands? Many historians have equated the “Hibaru” with the “Hebrews” and this
appears to be with little doubt a true equation. The name “Hebrew” comes from the Greek Hebraios and from the
Aramaic Ibhraij meaning “someone from the other side of the river.” Was it the Tigris or Euphrates River? If it was in
reference to the Euphrates then we are no doubt within the territory of the Mitanni Empire located in present day North
The biblical story of Abraham tells us that Abraham “bought a field from Ephron, the son of Zohar the Hittite” which
contained the burial cave of Machpelah that he and Sarah were buried in. There may be a very strange connection to this
“Hittite Field” as Pharaoh Aya, on his donation stela from Giza, alludes to one such place:
“Regnal Year 3, third month of the Harvest season, day 1…Kheperkheprure Doer–of-Maat; son of Re,
God‟s Father Ay, the God who rules Thebes, given life. On this day, when One was in Memphis, his
person commanded that the fields given as a reward to the Overseer of the King‟s Private Quarters
named Isut and to his wife Mutnodjmet be specified, (said fields) having been made in the territory called
“Field of the Hittites” upon fields of the Domain of Aakheperkare (= Thutmose I) and the domain of
Menkheprure (= Thutmose IV). The fields [consist of] 54 Arouras…”
The location speaks of being in an area West from the high desert, both South and East from Menkheprure‟s domain
between feeder canals running by it, and North of the domains of Ptah and of Aakheperkare” (*265*). Can this location
be found? And is there a connection with this place to the place Abraham bought from the Hittites?
We must take into account that when the Israelite scribes re-wrote down the oral historical story of Genesis some seven to
eight centuries after their Exodus from Egypt, they may have simply tried a calculated and successful attempt to disguise
the patriarch Abraham‟s true origins if he was not truly of pure Hebrew origin. The name by which the patriarch was
originally known by was “Abram”, which translates to “exalted father”, which happened to be one of the many ritual
names used by the pharaohs of Egypt. Ab-ra–„am in Egyptian means “The Father of the House of Ra” (*79*). As was
the custom of the Royal House of Egypt where pharaoh or the heir to the throne married his sister, Abraham did the same.
There were many other „family in–bred‟ marriages or unions involving closely related family members – Rebekka married
Isaac, Jacob married Leah and Rachel, Esau married his first cousin Mahalath.
We read in Genesis that Abraham and his sister-wife Sarah went down into Egypt. There Sarah became the wife of
pharaoh (Gen. 12:19). From the Jewish stories that have survived we are told that Abraham and Sarah stayed in Egypt at
least ten years (*22*). Who were the children born to them there in Egypt? Surely the possibility exist that Sarah bore
pharaoh a son or daughter. Her name was at first “Sarai” and this must have been her Egyptian name probably in honor of
the god “Ra”. While in Egypt Sarah is taken into Pharaoh‟s house and likely becomes one of Pharaoh‟s wives before
being sent away by pharaoh. Once out of Egypt, at least 30 years later, God changes Abram‟s name to Abraham and
Abraham‟s sister/wife‟s name to “Sarah” (Gen.17:15)13. More than 10 years after leaving Egypt Sarah gives her
Egyptian handmaiden Hagar to Abraham who bore his son Ishmael. But what was Hagar‟s true title behind the term
“handmaiden”? Other historical sources claim that Hagar was the daughter of pharaoh by one of his concubines (*79*).
The Midrash Genesis Rabbah is one of several Jewish compositional sources that relate such history:
13 Sarai – from Saray (Saw-Rah-ee), is the Hebrew term for „princess or female noble‟. The name comes from the Hebrew root word “Sar”
meaning “to have dominion”, “captain of”, “chief, master, head of”, “ruler”, “prince” (*1*), compared with her new name Sarah (SawRah) –
meaning “Princess, Queen, Female Noble” (*1*). Her name is also very close to the Egyptian royal title “Sa–Ra”, one of the names given to
Pharaoh meaning “Son of Ra”, with its counterpart name “Sit–Ra” meaning “daughter of Ra”. The meaning of her names indicates that Sarah
maintained and carried her royal titles as pharaoh‟s wife even after she left Egypt and traveled with Abraham.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 5
XLV. 1-2: “…R. Simeon b. Yohai said: “Hagar was Pharaoh‟s daughter. When Pharaoh saw what
was done on Sarah‟s behalf in his own house, he took his daughter and gave her to Sarah, saying,
„Better let my daughter be a handmaid in this house than a mistress in another house‟; thus it is
written, AND SHE HAD A HANDMAID, AN EGYPTIAN, WHOSE NAME WAS HAGAR, he
(Pharaoh) saying, „Here is thy reward (agar).‟ (Gen. Rabba 45.1; Translation, Rabbi Freedman)
Could there have been an original connection between Abraham, Sarah and the house of the Egyptian pharaohs to assign
them both such high status? When God spoke to Hagar (Gen. 16:11) and told her that she was to conceive a son Ishmael,
they were in Beer-lahai-roi, between Kadesh (the southern one), and Bered near the Shur desert. All of these places are
on the northern Sinai Penisula about 150 miles from the eastern Egyptian Delta. Hagar therefore, was not far from her
native land. But was Abraham really from “Ur of the Chaldees” or was he partly an Egyptian? Abraham‟s connection
with Egypt may have been to serve as vassal prince of Egyptian territory up north in Syria near the Hittite-Mitanni border,
perhaps in or near Ugarit. When he went down to Egypt with his sister wife Sarai, perhaps he had been re-called there by
the new pharaoh, perhaps even the new pharaoh of the new 18th Dynasty! The chronology does work out for Abraham
being in Egypt at this time.
From the natural and normal generation lifetimes of Abraham to Yuya-Joseph whose daughter Tiya must have been the
same age as Amenhotep III, the most likely candidates for the pharaoh who married Sarah would be Dynasty founder
Ahmose I or his son and successor Amenhotep I. Abraham leaves Egypt with Sarah and her handmaiden “Hagar the
Egyptian”. To have been a trusted servant of Sarah, such as a “Lady in Waiting”, Hagar must have been related to the
Royal Family, possibly a sister, daughter or cousin of Pharaoh. Hagar is later told by Abraham to return to the Wilderness
with her son Ishmael who becomes an archer before marrying an Egyptian (Gen.21:21). Is “Wilderness” another term for
Egypt? Rabbinical literature says that not only did Ishmael become a skillful archer but became the master of all the
bowmen (*165*)14. This is no small detail to set aside because a “Master of all the Bowmen” was a Royal military title
in the Egyptian Army and definitely connects him to the Royal House of Egypt. Surely Hagar and her son Ishmael
eventually returned to her native land of Egypt and re-connected with the Royal House. Ishmael‟s father Abraham most
certainly was a military leader for his people and/or for another nation because several biblical passages allude to
Abraham having a strong military that he commanded. One story in particular is Genesis 14 where we read that after
Abraham left Egypt he armed and trained 318 men and went to war against four kings who had invaded Sodom. The four
kings he defeated were Chedorlaomer (Elam), Tidal (King of Nations), Amraphel (Shinar = Babylonia) and Arioch
(Ellasar = Southern Babylon) who had attacked the king of Sodom where Abraham‟s brother Lot had been taken prisoner
(Gen.14.17). Abraham then gives tithes to Melchizedek, king of Salem15. Chronologically, this must be during the time
of the dynastic change when the Hyksos were expelled ushering in the 18th dynasty. Surely a major war between Egypt
and the Hyksos would have involved other countries and City States loyal to either side. Abraham must have fought for
Egypt but the truth of that is not certainly known. Next we are told that Hagar bore Abraham a son named Ishmael. What
is the next chapter in that story? At about that time in Egypt, after the war with the Hyksos and two pharaohs have ruled
to begin the 18th Dynasty, a new figure appears in the scene of Egyptian history – in steps Thutmose I into the royal family
first as the chief military man for Amenhotep I, then as the husband of Amenhotep I‟s oldest sister or daughter Queen
Ahmose. Thutmose I‟s mother “Senseneb”, who attended her son‟s coronation, is said to have been of “non-royal
parentage” but through his marriage to Queen Ahmose, Thutmose I is legitimized and becomes pharaoh. Could Senseneb
be the Egyptian name for Hagar? Are some of the people who came with Abraham still in Egypt? Are some of his
descendants, perhaps Ishmael who returned to Egypt, related to Thutmose I? DNA evidence revealed that Tutankhamun‟s
Y-chromosome was R1b1b2, a European/West Asian genetic marker (*143, 144, 148, 149*). Since this genetic marker is
exclusively passed from father to son, just who was the original paternal grand-parent who introduced this DNA into the
Egyptian Royal Family Tree line? From historical evidence via the unbroken paternal Dynastic succession rule of 18th
Dynasty pharaohs, there should be an unbroken paternal Y-chromosome marker that runs from Thutmose I to
Tutankhamun. Thus the connection between a European/West Asian genetic insertion into the Egyptian royal line in the
early 18th Dynasty is definitely possible and should be considered almost certain.
14 The Midrash Rabbah, also known as “Genesis Rabba”, or Gen. R., the source of the Jewish Encyclopedia‟s reference, actually says “…while a lad
(robeh), he trained himself in the use of the bow: Master (rabbah) of all archers…”(LIII.15). The passage comes before the next passage describing
Ishmael dwelling in the wilderness of Paran and his mother Hagar taking him a wife out of Egypt.
15 Melchizedek was likely a title and not a proper name. The roots of the word come from two Hebrew words: Melech = King and Zedek = Priest.
Thus Melchi-Zedek was a Priest-King of Jerusalem. He was either the highest Priest of Jerusalem or, as was many of the Pharaohs of Egypt who
held that title, served as both King and High Priest.
6 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
The Rekhyt Bird – the Symbol of the Foreign Visitor!
If some of Abraham‟s people remained in Egypt after he departed, the Rekhyt bird may be the sign of their sojourn there.
The Rekhyt bird, depicted by the lapwing bird in Egyptian texts, was the symbol of the commoner who had come into
Egypt as welcome temporary guests. The Rekhyt bird had been popular since the time of Hatshepsut, daughter of
Thutmose I. Hatshepsut referred to the common people as “My Rekhyt” (*93*). One hundred years later the Tomb of
Kheruef described scenes for the Year 30 Jubilee/Heb Sed of Pharaoh Amenhotep III. The scenes depict Queen Tiya
standing behind a seated Amenhotep III under a canopy decorated at the base with reliefs depicting 14 rekhyt birds. The
rekhyt bird is also seen on the Restoration Stela of Tutankhamun after his move from Akhetaten to Thebes in Year one.
The meaning of the rekhyt bird in the early dynastic days indicated both the foreign enemy and the foreign visitor. In later
times, particularly in the 18th and 19th dynasty the rekhyt bird symbol, especially one sitting on a basket, was in reference
to the common people or the foreigner but especially in reference to those who were both and had settled in Egypt. The
rekhyt bird was revered by the commoners and those related to the commoners because one of those „commoners‟ had
risen up to become an important part of the Royal House of Egypt sometime within the immediate past! That commoner
was most likely Yuya and/or Queen Tiya in the more recent past or Thutmose I in the more distant past.
The Rekhyt bird on the Restoration Stela of Tutankhamun. Rekhyt bird of Amenhotep III and Tiya in the tomb of Khereuf.
Joseph’s Noble Lineage as “Prince of Egypt”
With Egypt having a history of being such an all-embracing cosmopolitan nation, there should be no surprise if we ever
find out that Hebrews who came with Abraham remained in Egypt. We know that with the Kurustama Treaty, men from
the Kingdom of Hatti were resettled in Egypt creating peace between the two nations. This treaty is believed to have been
formulated during the early times of the 18th Dynasty and I would not be surprised if Abraham‟s entrance into Egypt is
related. If indeed through Abraham or Sarah or Hagar or Ishmael or Thutmose I there had been a genetic seed from some
of them that had endured and was still active when Joseph stood before pharaoh, this could very well have been the reason
for his quick and meteoric rise in the Royal House of Egypt. That Sarah‟s likeness hung in Pharaoh‟s bedroom is stated in
Zohar II, 30a. This is one of the most intriguing biblical stories and the Zohar recites the story of what Joseph told his
former master Ptahphar when he stood before pharaoh and the royal court after pharaoh had just exalted Joseph to the
status of Vizier of Egypt. Captain of the Guard Ptahphar, either still active or retired from the position by now, protested
the sudden ascent of his former slave Joseph and spoke of him before Pharaoh:
“Why dist thou appoint my slave, whom I did buy for twenty pieces of silver, to be ruler over the
Egyptians?” Joseph took upon his own defense in answering Ptahphar: “Why didst thou buy me as a
slave, thou dist commit a capital crime. Only a descendant of Canaan may be sold as a slave,16 and I am
a descendant of Shem and a prince besides. If thou wilt convince thyself of the truth of my words do but
compare me with the likeness of my (Great-grand) mother Sarah that Pharaoh had made of her!” “They
brought Sarah‟s likeness, and verily it appeared that Joseph resembled his ancestress, and all
were convinced of his noble lineage.” (*22*)(Zohar II, 30a)
The Zohar also mentions “Sarah‟s image” in another passage:
“…no woman but Rebekah ever appeared in Sarah‟s tent. And even though Abraham knew that Sarah‟s
image appeared there, he left that tent to Isaac to gaze upon his mother‟s image every day…”
– Zohar 1:33b, (*195*)
16 Joseph was referring to the passage in the Old Testament book of Genesis 9:25. Here is a reference of the story written in Genesis when Noah‟s
son Ham uncovers his nakedness and Ham‟s son Canaan is cursed to be a slave of Shem. From this erroneous interpretation of the bible sprang the
justification of many European Christians to enslave people of color from Africa and the Americas.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 7
Whatever the image was – a stone bust or statue or a papyrus drawing, as was commonly made by Egyptians in reverence
to an exalted one, Sarah no doubt left her remembrance in Egypt for generations to gaze upon. This was likely the final
evidence to confirm Joseph‟s tie to the early 18th Dynasty kings that allowed him to be accepted by the royal house and
the common people as their next governor. As Vizier of Lower Egypt, this would later allow Yuya-Joseph to settle his
immediate relatives into Egypt during a time of famine.
Joseph’s Father and Brothers come to Egypt as a group of 70 souls.
Joseph‟s journey to Egypt from where he came from and then his father‟s journey to Egypt some year‟s later was no doubt
a long trip. Northern Canaan or Syria is definitely a location they may have come from. We‟ve already noted that Isaac‟s
wife Rebekah and her brother Laban were of Syrian origin (Gen. 25:20). A biblical passage notes that either Joseph or
Jacob were also of Syrian (Aramaean) origin:
“And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God. A Syrian ready to perish was my father and he went
down into Egypt, and sojourned there with a few, and became there a nation, great, mighty and populous. And
the Egyptians evil entreated us and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage…” (Deut. 26:5)
Because of the shortage of food in the land of Canaan17, Joseph‟s father Jacob sent Joseph‟s brothers to find food, who
made their way to the land of plenty – bountiful Egypt! There in Egypt they discovered to their great surprise that their
outcast brother Joseph from many years past was not only still alive and able to feed and provide land and housing to save
them from starvation but by way of Joseph‟s good fortune via the blessing of Pharaoh, Joseph had risen to power in Egypt
as the great Vizier Yuya. It was Pharaoh Amenhotep III who allowed these Israelite farmer and shepherd men from
Northern Canaan and/or Syria to settle in the land of Goshen, in the eastern part of the Nile Delta region. Joseph‟s wife
Tuya was from a priestly family of high nobility and therefore held vast holdings of real estate in the Delta region (*8*).
With Joseph acting as Vizier and Governor of Egypt, he obviously acquired land also. Between Yuya-Joseph and his wife
Tuya-Asenath, there was obviously plenty of land for his brothers and their families to inhabit. We have, however two
slightly different biblical versions of how many came with their father Jacob into Egypt:
“Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household
came with Jacob. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah. Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, Dan, and
Naphtali, Gad, and Asher…and all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for
Joseph was in Egypt already…” KJV Exodus 1:1-5 (*1*).
“These are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt together with Jacob their father; they
came in each with their whole family. Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Judas, Issachar, Zabulon, Benjamin, Dan
and Nephthalim, Gad and Aser. But Joseph was in Egypt. And all the souls born of Jacob were seventy-
five.” – Septuagint18, Exodus 1:1 (*193*).
“Now these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob; they came each one with
his household: Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah; Issachar, Zebulun and Benjamin; Dan and Naphtali,
Gad and Asher. And all the persons who came from the loins of Jacob were seventy five in number, but
Joseph was already in Egypt…” – Dead Sea Scrolls Exodus 1:5 [42.158 Fragment A]
“…Then sent Joseph, and called his father Jacob to him, and all his kindred, threescore and fifteen
souls…” (60 + 15 = 75) – KJV Acts 7:14 (*1*)
17 The land of Ancient Canaan (the Egyptian Ka-na-na), included towns all the way up to the southern Turkey/Northern Syria location and possibly
beyond that area. Through cuneiform texts found of the autobiography on the statue of King Idrimi, we know that Idrimi gained control of the city of
Alalakh, (near modern day Antakya in Syria) and joined the “Hapiru people” in “Ammija in the Land of Canaan” during the reign of Parshatatar
(also Barattarna), King of Mitanni who many historians believe was the Mitanni King whom Thutmose I met in battle at the Euphrates River in his
Year 2, ca. 1494BC.Ammiya was near modern day Tripoli.
18 Written in Alexandria, Egypt during the third century BC (or BCE „before the Christian Era‟ or „before the Common Era‟), the Septuagint
represents the earliest version of the Old Testament Scriptures we still have and is undoubtedly the most reliable and oldest source of original Old
Testament Scriptures. Philo of Alexandria (1st century AD) confirms that only the Torah (first 5 books) were commissioned to be translated from
Hebrew to Greek. The next three centuries saw the rest of the books of the Old Testament be translated from Hebrew. The Dead Sea Scrolls, written
about 150 years after the Septuagint along with the Masoretic Text, which was copied, edited and re-written ca. 700AD by Jewish Masorete scribes,
represent two other reliable early sources with the Masorete Text widely used for translations of Old Testament bibles today. One of the minor
differences between these biblical sources, written 1000 years apart, is this particular Exodus 1:1 verse. I believe the “75” figure is probably closer to
the truth with the missing five souls “out of the loins of Jacob” being Yuya-Joseph, his wife Tuya-Asenath, their daughter Tiya and their twin sons
Suti (Ephraim) and Hor (Manasseh) who were purposely omitted by later biblical Hebrew Masoretic scribes due to their Egypt connection.
8 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
The amount of Israelites who came into Egypt and the circumstances of their entrance are important points when later
trying to describe and interpret the Israelite (descendants of Jacob-Israel) sojourn in Egypt and possibly any relationship to
them as Hyksos rulers and the Exodus of the Israelites at the time of the “expulsion” of the Hyksos as many had
previously believe to be the case. The circumstances involving their role as “guests” instead of “invaders” and the
chronology of the Israelite sojourn in Egypt point to the virtually certain likelihood that the Israelites were NOT the
Hyksos19 rulers of Egypt during the 15th, 16th and 17th dynasties:
THE HYKSOS WERE „UNINVITED‟ INVADERS WHO CAME WITH ARMIES
OF THOUSANDS CONQUERING EGYPT WHICH HAPPENED CENTURIES EARLIER
DURING THE TIME OF EGYPT’S 15TH DYNASTY!
CONTRARILY, THE ISRAELITES WERE „INVITED‟ GUESTS
OF THE 18th DYNASTY EGYPTIANS!!!
YUYA-JOSEPH ENTERED EGYPT BEFORE THE REIGN OF THUTMOSE IV
DURING THE 18TH DYNASTY.
THE EXODUS TOOK PLACE MORE THAN THREE GENERATIONS LATER WHEN
LEVI’S GREAT-GRANDSON MOSES PLAYED A PART IN THE ISRAELITES
DEPARTURE OUT OF EGYPT NEAR THE CONCLUSION OF THE 19TH DYNASTY!
No archeological or written evidence outside of the bible has been found that can prove that the Israelites existed as an
established and well-known nation before the time of King David who reigned ca. 1010 – 970BC. I don‟t discount the
high possibility that the early Hebrews during the time of Abraham had been in Egypt during the time of the Hyksos but
that would have been long before Abraham‟s grandson Jacob-Israel could envision his descendants as a “Nation of Israel”
nor large enough to create an invading army to go against powerful Egypt and subdue her as Hyksos Invaders. In
contrast, the Israelites were “invited” guests of the Egyptians, not “invaders” and when Jacob came with his family of 70,
which included children, this certainly could not have been an invading army! The Hyksos did not mummify their kings
or any other of their Nobles while in Egypt. Not a single body of a Hyksos ruler has ever been found so there is no
evidence that they practiced mummification. The Hyksos, just like their contemporary Indo-European tribes and Hittites,
burned their dead during a cremation ritual. The bible says both Jacob and Joseph were mummified (Gen. 50:3, 50:26);
therefore they could not have been in Egypt during the reign of the Hyksos. The Hyksos main god was the storm god
Baal who was Seth in Egypt. Unless history once again was “re–written by the victors!” the Hyksos were expelled,
kicked out and chased all the way to Syria. The Hyksos did not ask, plead or beg pharaoh to “let my people go” because
they were not the captives but were those who held the Egyptians in captivity. Who were they and where did they come
from is still one of the most intriguing questions facing historians. One of the few clues we have of them is that the
contemporary Egyptian term used during the occupation to distinguish the people of Avaris at the Hyksos Egyptian
Capital was the term “Aamu”. This term has traditionally been translated as “Asiatics”.
The Traditional Year of 1446BC as the Year of the Exodus
For these reasons discussed between those who were invited guests vs. those who were invaders later expelled, the
Hyksos could not have been the Hebrews and Israelites who were “liberated” out of Egypt during the Exodus and that
theory is slowly fading out. Since most Egyptologist are within a decade or two of confirming the chronology of the 18th
Dynasty as beginning with Pharaoh Ahmose‟s accession ca. 1540 BC, some ten years or so after the expulsion of the
19 “Hyksos” is from the Greek “Heksos” (Heka+sos, which was originally taken from the Egyptian “Heka” = Ruler + “khasewet” or “Khasut” =
foreign. They were believed to have been Semitic peoples who invaded Northern Egypt with new tools of warfare such as the composite bow and the
horse-drawn chariot. The Hyksos ruled Northern Egypt for over one-hundred years from their capitol city of Avaris in the Delta Region. They
worshipped the god Seth and did not mummify their dead. Many have previously associated the Hyksos with the Israelites who entered Egypt but
due to a multitude of differences, this relationship has fallen out of favor. The fact that history has passed down the concept that they were “foreign
rulers” probably implies that another more powerful Nation was in control of Egypt at the time and used their own “foreign” personnel to rule Egypt
from a distance. The Kingdom of Mitanni and their Indo-European leaders who brought the war chariot to Egypt would certainly be a candidate.
The Hittites are also a candidate.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 9
Hyksos, this makes the biblical calculations between the “Hyksos” Exodus and the proposed biblical Exodus year of
1446BC about a hundred years excessive, and far too much time in between to the time of the existence of the Nation of
Israel as historically known to be ca. 1010 – 576BC. The time-line that many Biblical Historians have given with “The
Year 1446 BC” as the year of the Exodus provides no confirmation from archeological or text references that thus far has
ever been found to substantiate this date for an event such as the Exodus. That is only because these biblical historians
have been looking in the wrong place in history, trying to somehow take the easy road of calculating “480 years from the
Exodus to the building of Solomon‟s Temple” from the year 966 BC to come up with that year figure20. I shall explain
why that figure is off by a factor of two and should be cut in half to find the year of the Exodus and the multitude of
evidence during that period of history at the end of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt to now substantiate the story of the Exodus.
A Biblical Review of the Length of time of the Sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt
The ambiguity of two very well known biblical chronologies have been abundantly debated:
1a. The 430 year sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt. (KJV Exodus 12:40)21
1b. The 430 year sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt and Canaan. (Septuagint (LXX) and Samarian Pentateuch)
2a. The 480 year span from the Israelites Exodus out of Egypt to the building of Solomon‟s temple (Masorete KJV I Kings 6:1).
2b. The 440 year span from the Israelites Exodus out of Egypt to the building of Solomon‟s temple (LXX – I Kings 6:1).
Because of the conflict between different dates given in multiple places in the various scriptures, there have been many
researchers and authors who have debated the legitimacy of the various years given. I agree with the reasoning of one
such author Steve Brock who notes that the first two dates (1a. and 1b.) cannot be relied upon:
“Three time periods mentioned in the Bible relate to the Exodus. Two of them give a period of time from
something in Abraham‟s life to the Exodus. Exodus 12:40 states that the “Children of Israel” will reside
in Egypt for 430 years and Genesis 15:13 states that the Israelites will be in bondage for 400 years. The
most important problem with these two verses is that the Bible does not include an absolute date to
anchor the time spans. Thus, these verses cannot be used in a straightforward manner to determine the
Exodus date. But there is a time span given in 1 Kings 6:1 which states that the Exodus occurred 480
years prior to the 4th year of King Solomon‟s reign. Most scholars agree that King Solomon‟s reign
started in about 970 BCE, plus or minus 10 years…” (*210*)
Brock continues to write about the same conclusion that I have come to about the second chronology (2a.) – that 480 is a
product of two “magic” numbers – 40 and 12 which because of their constant use in the Bible, cannot be trusted outright
as reliable numbers used for chronology. The consensus amongst biblical scholars with the first chronology is that the
Israelites sojourned in both Canaan and Egypt for 430 years which has been divided into spending 215 years in each area.
Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian born just after the crucifixion of Jesus The Christ must have had first hand access
and knowledge to the Septuagint version on this particular subject for in Josephus‟ work “Antigutatum Judaicarum” he
quotes what is virtually the same as what was in the Septuagint version:
20 Further complicating the correct chronological discovery of the Exodus when counting back in time is the unknown certainty of whether or not the
scribes of Judah and Israel and later scribes who re-wrote and/or edited earlier writings used the Solar Year of 365 days or a lunar year consisting of
12 months of 354 days. Many researchers have realized this conflict. One example is that which is put forth by R. P. BenDedek who suggests that
the Kings of the divided kingdom used a “King‟s Calendar” consisting of 12 months of 28 days thereby creating an “Artificial Year” consisting of
336 days. This system would translate a “King‟s calendar” 480 years to 441 solar years and the reason for the difference between the Septuagint‟s
440 year and the Masorete/KJV of 480 years given in I Kings 1.
21 The Book of Jasher (81:3-4) claims that the Israelites sojourned in Egypt for 210 years. The chronological anchor point is 966BC for the building
of Solomon‟s Temple. Thus the „430 years in Egypt‟ figure is in obvious conflict with the 480 year figure given for the Exodus to the Temple
building because that would mean the Israelites were in Egypt since ca. 1876BC (966BC + 480 = 1446BC + 430 = 1876BC) which if we are to
accept that Joseph was “the first Israelite” in Egypt would leave 430 years between his brother Levi‟s son Kohath coming to Egypt and just two
generations later having Moses lead them out of Egypt. It is possible that the later writers and editors of the “480 year” figure may have in fact
meant that figure to be from the time of the Israelites in Egypt through the Exodus and to the time of the Temple building. Omitting words by error
or purposely by the scribes leaves us with the debate of just what was originally written because added words are just as controversial as omitted
words. One of many such examples is in Genesis 47:11 where the term “Land of Ramesses” is used signifying that the language used at the time
Genesis was re-copied many years after Ramesses II had lived. The previous passage of Gen. 46:28 of the Septuagint held additional and similar
verbiage where Joseph meets his father Jacob in the “City of heroes, into the Land of Ramesses”, but in the corresponding later written Masoretic
version of Genesis 46:28-29 that Septuagint phrase in the text is replaced by a simpler phrase “…Land of Goshen” meaning that the “Ramesses”
phrase was later redacted from the text of most bibles being read today. No pharaoh had yet been named Ramesses during Joseph and Jacob‟s time
in Egypt so this language cannot be contemporary with that time. Biblical author Glenn Kimball believed that the two passages in Genesis 50:24-25
and Joshua 24:32-33 may also very well represent later “out of place” insertions by future editors (*9*).
10 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
“They left Egypt in the month of Xanticos, at the Neomenia22 in the 430th year after the arrival of our
Patriarch Abraham in Canaan and in the 215th year after that Jacob had come to Egypt.”
– Josephus, “Antiqutatum Judaicarum” II.XV.2
I have calculated that Joseph came into Egypt about the year 1408 BC with the first of two Exoduses having occurred in
1206 BC and the second, main Exodus occurring in Year 6 of Seti II nine and a half years later 1197 BC. There may have
also been a third Exodus after the defeat of Twosret by Setnakht, ca. 1188BC. If the “215 years” were to start counting
when Joseph had come to Egypt then the second Exodus yields a difference of 211 years (1408 – 1197 = 211) which is
very close to the 215 year figure which biblical scholars give based on dividing the time of the 430 years in half and what
the book of Jasher states to have been 210 years. The year 1197 BC is just about the time the Trojan War was occurring
in Western Anatolia, the Aegean and the Mediterranean and two decades before the „Sea Peoples‟ were moving out of the
Aegean and the Anatolia regions as a result of years of war and drought. These conditions brought poor harvests and
destroyed homes and they were now looking towards Egypt as their new conquered lands to settle down in but they were
defeated by Ramesses III (*42*). Whatever will eventually be the discovery of the exact date of the Israelites entrance
into Canaan soon after and their domination of the territory may never be known but they nevertheless arrived during an
opportunistic time and eventually built a Nation of Israel.
Biblical Chronological Calculations of the Israelites Sojourn in Canaan AND in Egypt.
When the Jews and the other Israelite Tribes returned to Jerusalem out of Babylonian exile after 540BC, we are not
exactly sure how the scribes who re-wrote the Old Testament stories measured their chronology but here is another reason
the Israelites did not spend 430 (solar) years only in Egypt and that the alternative biblical version that they spent 430
years in Canaan AND in Egypt must be the correct one. The life of Moses is broken into three evenly 40 year time
periods23. Exodus 6:16-20, tells us that Levi lived to the age of 137, his son Kohath to the age of 133 years and his son
Amram to the age of 137 years. It was Amram who is said to have fathered Moses. Since Levi and Kohath were among
those who entered Egypt with Jacob (Gen.46:11), we cannot count all of the Levi years and all of Kohath‟s years because
those unknown amount of years were not spent in Egypt. Even if we took those highly exceptional amount of lifespan
years and assuming that Kohath was an infant when he arrived in Egypt, and that he fathered Amram in his final year and
that Amram fathered Moses in his final year, and that Moses was 80 years of age when they left Egypt, there would be a
maximum of 133 + 137 + 80 = 350 years from the entrance of Jacob and the Israelites in Egypt to the Exodus. Even if we
add on the approximate 35 years that Joseph was already in Egypt before Jacob et.al. arrived, that adds up to 385 years,
still quite short a “generation” of the 430 years biblically stated. This is all depending on the unconvincing scenario that
both Kohath and Amram waited until their final year of life to father their respective sons and that there are no missing
generations from Levi to Moses. This scenario still brings the sojourn in Egypt to a shorter time period than the often
repeated 430 years. The answer is simple: the older translation from the Septuagint that the Israelites sojourned in Canaan
AND Egypt for 430 years must be correct. This has been realized by many biblical researchers who divide the 430 year
figure in half – 215 years in Canaan and 215 years in Egypt. Since these three ages for Levi, Kohath and Amram are so
close to adding up to 400 years, it would appear that later editors who adhered to the 430 figure “in Egypt only” may have
tried to fit the 430 years from Levi to the Exodus, i.e. 137+133+137+80 = 487 then compensating for overlapping years
between each generation for about the age when the first-born may have been born with the figure of subtracting 19 years
between each, i.e. 118+114+118+80 = 430!
The Ancient Calendar and its Relationship to Biblical Chronological Calculations
We should not expect that the calendar we use today was how the ancient Hebrews measured time. This is one main error
researchers use to compare and interpret biblical chronologies mentioned in scriptures. The fact that the divided nations
of Israel and Judah used different calendars which started at different points in the year should cause researchers to re-
22 Xanticos = the first month in the Macedonian calendar corresponding to Nisan in the Jewish calendar. Neomenia = “The time of the New Moon”
and also “The festival of the New Moon”. This is additional information that the main Exodus was during a “New Moon” event.
23 This is traditionally taken from Acts 7:23-30 where the life of Moses is divided into three equal 40 year segments. The Book of Jasher (mentioned
in Josh.10:13) states that Moses was 18 years old when he left Egypt and next goes to Cush (Nubia/Ethiopian area). Moses becomes King of
Cush/Ethiopia for 40 years. Moses then goes to Midian where he is imprisoned for 10 years by Priest of Midian Reuel (Jethro), who thinks he is
wanted by the Cushites (Jash.71-73:2). This story would be more in line with Moses being Viceroy of Kush and holding the title “King‟s Son of
Kush”, a position Moses could have definitely held as (adopted) Son of Pharaoh. Moses must have taken his “Ethiopian Wife” with him during the
Exodus as Numbers 12:1 clearly states that he had married one.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 11
examine their chronologies because the evidence is still in use today – Nisan and Tishri represent two New Year dates in
the Jewish calendar. Both nations of Israel and Judah had their roots in the Egyptian calendar using it for at least up to the
time right after the inception of each of their nations. The 365-day Egyptian calendar had been used by many surrounding
nations for centuries until Julius Caesar implemented the Julian 365-day plus a leap year day every four years when the
Romans conquered and ruled the peoples of the Mediterranean and European regions forcing them to conform with
Roman time keeping. Most kept in line with Rome but some used their own calendar.
The use of two different calendars by various nations in history is often cited. One example was the centuries following
Pope Gregory‟s mandate upon abandoning the Julian calendar after he instituted the Gregorian Calendar in 1582. Many
Protestant countries, including England and its colonies who did not recognize the authority of the Pope, continued to use
the Julian Calendar. Between 1582 and 1752, two calendars were in use with Europe using the Gregorian Calendar with
January 1st as the start of the New Year and the other of the English colonies who used the Julian calendar using March
25th near the first day of spring as the start of the New Year. Not until the year 1752 did England and its colonies change
to the Gregorian calendar dropping 11 days from the month of September 1752 to come in sync with the Gregorian
calendar. December 31, 1751 was followed by January 1, 1752 as normal but September 2, 1752 was followed by
September 14, 1752. The “new” Gregorian Calendar had already dropped 10 days from the calendar in 1582 to come in
sync with the Vernal Equinox (First day of Spring) so that it arrived sometime around Easter and other Catholic Church
Holidays in March/April. George Washington was actually born on 11 February 1731 under the Julian calendar but his
birthday was changed to 22 February 1732 to conform to the Gregorian calendar.
From the time the Israelites/Jewish scribes were first recording chronological events using the Egyptian calendar followed
by the calendar in use of all the nations they were suppressed by in the last 3,000 years up to the time of the
implementation of the Gregorian calendar, changes in the calendar had to be challenging when recording past events.
Thus, we should expect some confusion to have occurred throughout their history with the recollection of dates and the
passage of time. That the chronological calculation of 480 years from Exodus to Solomon is overestimated by twice the
amount is an error perpetuated throughout history. Fortunately, there are many historians who are starting to look at the
possibility that this error is the reason why no Exodus evidence can be found near the year 1446BC. As I have previously
stated, the “480–year” period is overestimated by a factor of two. This is because the early Hebrew calendar consisted of
six months to equal a year, not 12. One researcher studying this subject is Stephen Franklin, who quotes the following:
“…The basis of my primary argument in this work is that the biblical timeline has been multiplied by a
factor of two across an almost 800-year period ending after the construction of Solomon’s Temple in 945
BC. Whether accidentally or intentionally, the 215-year period from the entry of Jacob into Egypt until
the Exodus and the 240-year period from the Exodus to the Temple (building of) have therefore been
doubled so that the biblical figures became 430 and 480 years respectively. Using this heretofore
unrecognized mechanism, it was possible to reconstruct with an error of less than a single year from
biblical ages and periods alone what year Joseph was born, what year Jacob was born, when the two
died and at what ages, when Joseph was sold into slavery and at what age, and, most importantly, when
he became a high official of Egypt under Thutmosis IV. This date works out to 1405 BC, five years before
Jacob entered the country in 1400 during the 3½-year period of famine that began in 1402 BC, and 220
years before the Exodus under Moses, Miriam, and Aaron…” (*187*)
Based on events and chronologies with contemporary figures from Egypt and other nations, the conventional consensus
amongst historians and accepted by biblical scholars is that Solomon reigned for 40 years from 970 – 931BC. According
to I Kings 6, Solomon began building the Temple in Year 4, Month 2 (Ziv) and completed the Temple building in Year
11, Month 8 (Bul), thus taking 7 years, 6 months to its completion in 959BC where it would stand for 372 (solar) years
until destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587BC24. This puts the start of the building of the temple at 966 BC. The time
of the Exodus has been given as 480 years prior to the start of the building of Solomon‟s temple. Adding 480 years to this
gives the date that is recognized by the majority of modern biblical-literalists. That date is 1446 BC as the year of the
Israelites Exodus out of Egypt and that would be Year 23 of Pharaoh Thutmose III. Three months after the death of
Hatshepsut and the end of their joint reign is the date of I Shemu 21 (7 May 1446 BC), the date of Thutmose III‟s
victorious and famous “Battle of Megiddo”, two weeks into his Year 23. Two months later is the date recorded as the
surrender of Megiddo. With more than 30 years left in his reign, Thutmose III could not have been the pharaoh who died
24 Rabbinic Text say the Temple stood for 410 years but this is likely from a calculation of a 12-lunar-month/354-day-year. If they used the “King‟s
Calendar” of a 12-month-28-day month-336 days/year this would equate to 410 years.
12 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
during the Exodus. If the Israelites as a large assemblage were kept in slavery in Egypt for decades before that, there
unfortunately have been no archeological findings to prove any existence of them in Egypt or in Canaan at that time.
Author Eric Cline explains it this way:
“This story of the Exodus has become one of the most famous and enduring tales in the Hebrew Bible,
still celebrated today in the Jewish holiday of Passover. Yet it is also one of the most difficult to
substantiate by either ancient texts or archaeological evidence.” (*312*)
After Thutmose III‟s capture of Megiddo and his re–insertion of Egypt‟s dominion over Canaan and Syria (The Levant)
and the inhabitants of these lands, this could have been the very first time Hebrews and/or Israelites were taken captive
into Egypt by Thutmose III, and perhaps later writers such as The Deuteronomists confused the amount of time the
Israelites were in Egypt through the Exodus and up to the time of Solomon‟s Temple Building, confusing it with only the
time of the Exodus to the Temple Building. If this time period of 1446BC represents the time the Israelites and Hebrews
escaped from Egypt there is a lot to be explained regarding their whereabouts for the next 300 years as there could be no
place in the Levant that the Egyptian or Hittite Empires allowed for an independent rule as those two Empires completely
controlled the Levant and did not allow such a strong Independent Nation as Israel nor their great rival the Philistines to
exist at that time. The solution biblical historians have concluded to is an excessively long period of the judges lasting
some 400 years!
At the current time, there is still uncertainty about the nature of the early calendar of the ancient Hebrews. Since the
Jewish or Hebrew Calendar was originally lunar based having 12 months of alternating 29 and 30 days, that would only
equal 354 days and is short of the 365 ¼ day solar calendar by 11 days. That problem was corrected with the addition of
an intercalary month (Adar I), every two or three years to make up the difference, thus with the Jewish calendar it requires
7 extra months to be interjected in a 19-year period of time. It is with this 19 year period that both the lunar and solar
cycles almost exactly match up25. The questions are: “when exactly did the ancient Israelites implement this intercalary
month system?” and “when exactly did the ancient Israelites/Hebrews break away from following the Egyptian calendar
and implement a calendar based on Nisan/Aviv or Tishri/Ethanim (Rosh haShanah)?” The answer is not so simple as
there is no mention of an intercalary month in the bible. Only the names of four ancient Jewish calendar months from pre-
Babylonian exile were recalled and recovered: Aviv – first month; Ziv – second month; Ethanim – seventh month and Bul
– eighth month. These names were likely of a Canaanite origin. The present day Jewish calendar adopted the
Babylonian month names after the return from the Babylonian exile still in use today. After returning to Jerusalem
followed by the second construction of the Temple, the Mishna tells us that during this era (516 BC – 70 AD) the priests
had witnesses report to them on the 29th day of the month in regards to starting a new month based on if they could still
see a crescent moon or no moon. This was the same system used in Egypt and Babylon because the new moon
determined the start of the month and whether or not an intercalary month needed to be injected if the month of Nisan was
supposed to start but was more than 15 days from reaching the Vernal/Spring Equinox. In that case the extra month (Adar
1) would be injected into the calendar and Nisan and the New Year would have to wait another month. The current solar-
lunar calendar used today is generally believed to have been decreed so by the Sanhedrin ca. 359AD.
Since most of the Bible refers to months by number and not by name, it is easy to see how after the return from Babylon
the two competing tribal nations of Israel and Judah had to sort out what time of the year feasts were supposed to occur
and exactly which “first month” the Exodus happened in order to celebrate the Passover. I propose that originally the
“first” month was what is now known as Rosh Hashanah, occurring near the time of the Autumn equinox. The second
“first” month occurred when the northern tribes of Israel split from the southern tribes and adopted the Egyptian calendar
which was having its New Year around the time of the Spring Equinox. This tradition has been kept throughout the
centuries so that two “New Year” dates are recognized in the Jewish calendar. The Passover however was celebrated as
an event which happened during the first full moon after the spring equinox, but was it originally during a New Moon?.
25 In a 19-year period, 235 lunations = 6,939 days, 16.5 hours compared to 19 solar years = 6,939 days, 14.5 hours. The discovery of this cycle has
been credited to Meton, the Athenian Astronomer who flourished around 432BC, but I am certain that the ancient Egyptian Astronomers were well
aware of this cycle from whom the Greeks learned it from long before they conquered Egypt. As a contemporary example of this cycle, a full moon
occurred at 4deg40‟ Aries on 28 Sept 2015 at 2:52 GMT. 19 years later on 28 Sept 2034, a full moon will occur at 2:58 GMT at 5deg04‟ Aries.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 13
When is the Jewish New Year?
The subject of the “Jewish New Year” is the now the next point of discussion. The 480 year debate from Solomon “back
to the year 1446 BC” has created much confusion as to who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus at that time. However, many
are realizing that if taken into account that a six-month year was used for a period of time, then we are talking about a
figure of 480 “half years” as related to a 365-day year.
“For the counting of months, Nisan26 – the month that begins spring – is considered the first. However,
the Jewish year is reckoned from the month of Tishri – the month that begins autumn. This would seem to
be the superimposition of one calendar system upon another, which took place during the Babylonian
Exile”, (ca. 586 – 538BC). (*186*)
There is ample evidence that the ancient Jewish calendar held two different New Year Days within the 365 day period
which appears to have originated during the time of the divided Kingdom of Israel! That approximately 6 lunar months
was equal to a year with the two New Year reference points occurring at the two equinox points in the year is well known
to have been used by the Ancient Israelites and is still alive today with the Jewish calendar. The two calendar system has
apparently perpetuated throughout Jewish history as today Nisan is recognized in the Jewish calendar as the first month of
the Religious year while Tishri is recognized in the Jewish calendar as the first month of the Civil or Secular (non-
religious) Calendar. The Religious calendar begins near the Spring Equinox known today as the month of Nisan,
biblically known as the month of Aviv (also Abib). The Civil calendar begins in the Fall and is recognized today as Rosh
Hashana or “Jewish New Year” beginning in the seventh month known as Tishri, usually falling in September near the
Autumn Equinox. Edwin Thiele and the Belgium historian and priest Valerius Coucke were the first to recognize that
there were two different New Years recognized by the ancient Israelites during the time of their breakup from a United
Israel demonstrating that the Northern Kingdom of Israel celebrated a Spring Equinox New Year while the Southern
Kingdom of Judah celebrated an Autumnal Equinox New Year (*166*). This difference along with the two nations also
using different methods of accession or non-accession years cleared up the confusion with cross references to the Israelite
King‟s reigns and other correspondent chronologies with other countries:
“…Regnal years in Judah began with the month of Tishri. In Israel the non-accession-year system was
used for the length of reign in Israel and the synchronism with Judah. When Judah shifted back to the
accession-year system, Israel also adopted that method. Regnal years in Israel began with the month of
Nisan. In both Judah and Israel a number of coregencies occurred, and in Israel there were two
instances of rival reigns…” (*166*)
A most important artifact discovered proving a Tishri New Year is The Gezer Calendar representing the earliest evidence
of proto-Hebrew writing. Written in early Hebrew using the Phoenician alphabet, the calendar was discovered at an
archeological dig in 1908 at Tell el-Jazari, the ancient city of Gezer. Since the calendar was written by “Abijah”, the
calendar has been dated to the 10th century BC during the time of King Solomon or just after his reign ca. 940 BC since
the name Abijah was popular during his reign. Abijah was the name of Jeroboam‟s son and Solomon‟s grandson. It also
had been the name of Samuel‟s son who is recorded as the last Judge before the reign of Saul (I Sam.8:1-4). The calendar
begins with the Festival of the Olive Harvest which occurs near the Autumn Equinox. This could very well be a tradition
that had been well known to the ancient Israelites even when they were in Egypt who later preserved the two New Year‟s
dates, one at the Spring Equinox in the month of Nisan (Exo. 12:2, Deut.16:1) and one at the Autumn Equinox in the
month of Tishri. This Autumn feast is held in modern times on 15 Tishri when Sukkot is celebrated as “the feast of in,
which is in the end of the year.” (Exo. 34:22, Exo.23:16). The Gezer calendar is another clue that the Israelites
celebrated the beginning of the year at this time. Written possibly as a school learning song or poem about the harvest
season, the calendar poem begins with the start of the year in the Autumn! The translation of the inscription (in bold)
and the contemporary months and seasons accepted by most historians (in parenthesis) sounds as such:
26 Nisan was the first month in the Babylonian calendar and after the exile was recognized in the Jewish calendar by this name. It was known in pre-
exilic times as Abib (also Aviv) representing the “first month” in the biblical calendar meaning ”spring”, “ripening of grain”, “first fruits” and thus
associated with the spring Harvest season when Barley, Wheat and Oats were harvested in the Palestine/Canaan region. A minority of biblical
historians have claimed that Abib should be placed sometime in September near the Autumn equinox such as where the month of Tishri is and closer
to the harvest time of Millet, grapes, pomegranates‟, figs and olives. This “Harvest Time difference” may prove that the early Israelites who relied
exclusively on a lunar calendar neglected as much as 11 days per 365-day year, resulting in a calendar which receded backwards in time which
eventually caused the calendar and the seasons to be out of sync with their 354-day lunar calendar. The Islamic Calendar uses this same lunar
calendar system. Tishri comes from the Akkadian word “Tash Ritu” and the Aramaic word “Sherei” meaning “to begin” and also referring to the
beginning of the autumn harvest. This should indicate a clear reference to two “New Years” separated by six months that the ancient Israelites
recognized in the past.
14 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
“Two months gathering” (Tishri – Heshvan; September – October) – fruit & olive picking.
“Two months planting” (Kislev – Tevet; November – December) – grain sowing.
“Two months late sowing” (Shevat – Adar; January – February).
“One month cutting flax” (Nisan; March).
“One month reaping barley” (Iyyar; April).
“One month reaping and measuring grain” (Sivan; May) – wheat harvest.
“Two months pruning” (Tammuz – Av; June, July) – pruning and wine vintage.
“One month summer fruit” (Elul; August) – picking of figs.
Was the celebration of the New Year near the Autumn equinox originally celebrated by the Israelites first, and later in
time celebrated at the Spring equinox? Somehow this seems to have been the case and when the Northern Tribes split
from Judah, they began a calendar starting near the Spring Equinox. Likely due to the need of the newly crowned
Jeroboam, as first king of the Northern Tribe of Israel, with ties to Egypt and the need of a protectorate, Jeroboam had the
backing of Egypt and its pharaoh Shoshenq I whom he had ran off to (ca. 941BC) in Solomon‟s Year 30 (I Kings 11:40).
looking at the historical coincidental encounter of the Spring Equinox occurring simultaneously with the Egyptian New
Year (once every 1460 years), it seems clear why the Northern Tribes adopted the Calendar that began the year near the
Spring Equinox in March as we calculate it today with our Gregorian calendar. When the Northern Tribes submitted to
Egypt, they also took on the Egyptian Calendar which by the time of the divided Israel was having the Egyptian New
Year occurring very near the Spring Equinox. During the reign of Ramesses II, the Egyptian New Year on I Akhet 1 was
occurring near the summer solstice but by more than 300 years later, the Egyptian calendar had regressed three months
and seasonally now occurring near the Spring Equinox. By the year 931 BC, near the accession year of Jeroboam, the
equinox was occurring on Julian March 30th/Gregorian March 20th. This has to be the reason the Northern Tribes took on
Nisan as the first month of the year because they either were compelled or volunteered to keep in sync with Egypt upon
becoming a vassal state to them. The year that the dates actually coincided exactly with each other were the four years
before and after the year -874/875BC when I Akhet 1 occurred on or very near the date of 30 March on the Julian
Calendar = 21 March on the Gregorian calendar. The following table compares the dates:
I Akhet 1 First Day of spring Season
Julian Year Julian date Gregorian date Gregorian date Julian date
-1276 8-Jul 27-Jun 22-Mar 2-Apr
-1240 29-Jun 18-Jun 21/22 Mar 1, 2 April
-1160 9-Jun 29-May 21-Mar 1-Apr
-1080 20-May 10-May 21-Mar 31-Mar
-1000 30-Apr 21-Apr 20/21Mar 30/31 Mar
-931 13-Apr 4-Apr Jeroboam 20-Mar 30-Mar
-920 10-Apr 1-Apr 20/21 Mar 29/30 Mar
-888 2-Apr 24-Mar 21-Mar 30-Mar
-880 31-Mar 23-Mar 21/22 Mar 29/30 Mar
-874 30-Mar 21-Mar
Akhet = ^21-Mar 30-Mar
-872 29-Mar 21-Mar 21/22 Mar 29/30 Mar
Compiled by R. Jacquet
The year -931/932BC is the approximate year that Israel became a divided Nation. The Julian date
of 13 April was 14 Nisan in the Jewish Calendar. Four years before and after the year -874/875 BC
represents the years when the Egyptian New Year occurred on the Gregorian date of 21 March.
Gregorian and Julian dates taken from Swiss Ephemeris (*248*). Table Compiled by R. Jacquet
From the time after the Exodus when the Israelites left Egypt up to the time of the United Kingdom of Israel, they must
have adopted a calendar with the New Year occurring near the Autumn Equinox. Having been in Egypt for centuries they
had been in sync with the Egyptian Calendar and the New Year day (I Akhet 1) which had been occurring near the
Summer Solstice at the time of the end of the 19th dynasty but would have occurred near the Autumn Equinox around
1570BC. They would have likely wanted to distance themselves from many Egyptian attributes including its calendar.
They may have at first adopted a 12-month lunar calendar of 354 days a year. One scenario is having them adopt this
calendar ca. autumn 1177BC, at the time of the proposed Bronze Age collapse (*312*) and their impending entrance into
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 15
Canaan. By five cycles27 of the calendar receding back in time to autumn again would lead us to 1010BC, the proposed
accession date of King David who may have then implemented an intercalary month for the calendar to consistently keep
up with the seasons while keeping this seasonal date as the start of the calendar year. Was it because the true date of the
main Exodus was during the Autumn Equinox and not the Spring Equinox? If this was the origin and true date of the
adoption of a New Year consistently beginning near the Autumn Equinox (Tishri), David‟s descendants would keep this
system for Judah when the Kingdom divided. Upon the split of the Nation of Israel, the Northern Tribes (Israel) adopted
the New Year as occurring near the Spring Equinox. The first month of the year then became the month of Aviv until
post Babylonian exile when it would then be called Nisan. The Southern Tribes of Judah remained with the New Year
beginning in the (7th) month of Tishri. This is recognized as “Rosh Hashana” or “Jewish New Year” today.
Most historians accept the fact that the calendar we use today IS NOT the same calendar system the ancient
Israelites/Hebrews used! This dual “New Year” dating system used by the Israelites may very well be the explanation for
extraordinarily long-lived lives recorded in the Old Testament! We are faced with the very likely possibility that after
their freedom from Babylonian captivity both New Year Days were honored making six months = one year and instead of
counting 480 of our present Gregorian Calendar Years, we are really talking about half the amount of 480 years, or 240
“solar” years since the time of the Exodus until Solomon‟s temple building in 96628. Thus instead of a “430 year sojourn
in Egypt only” and a recorded “480 years from the Exodus to the building of the Temple of Solomon” and using our
calendar system of 365 days = 1 Solar year, we may be interpreting that wrong which should instead be half of the amount
of years given in biblical accounts, that is: 480 years should very well be interpreted to be 6 months/182.5 days = 1 year,
and we should translate that to 240 Solar years of 365 days. That now brings the exodus to 966BC – (-240) years =
1206BC. Now that is extraordinarily close to the first of three dates I have proposed for the Exodus out of Egypt by the
Israelites and the Hebrew. This is based on the assumption that the Israelite calendar injected an intercalary month every
2 or 3 years in order to keep up with the solar year of 365 ¼ days at the time of the reign of King Solomon and later when
they were recording/re-recording their history after being set free from Babylon. We may also have cause for debate as to
when and if Solomon used a calendar based on the year origin in Tishri, for in 1 Kings 8:2 we read: “And all the men of
Israel assembled themselves unto king Solomon at the feast in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh month.” Ethanim
was the Hebrew name of the 7th month used by Hebrew Calendar before the Babylonian Exile. The name of the month
was known by the Babylonian month Tishri after the Exile. Unless the Southern tribes of Judah changed the New Year
date, this should have been during the first month of the year as was recognized by Judah before and after the split
between the tribes. The Northern Israelite Tribes used Nisan as the first month and Ethanim/Tishri as the seventh month.
Was this later editing done by descendants of Northern Israelite Tribe “Elohist” scribes after the Babylonian Exile?
Although there had been at least two and possibly three Exodus dates out of Egypt, in Part 2, I will describe how the main
one occurred near the autumnal date now known as Tishri in the midst of a phenomenal astronomical event over Egypt
and just days before the death of pharaoh!
Akhenaten’s Aten Temple may have been the Blue Print for Solomon’s Temple!
27 A lunar cycle of 29.5306 days x 12 months = 354.3672 days. This creates a 365.2422 – 354.3672 = 10.875 day recession per year in the calendar.
It would take 33.5855 years for the calendar to recess back to the same seasonal date. This 33.5855 x 5 cycles = 167.93 years which when subtracted
from mid-year 1177.5 would be the year 1010 BC.
28 The calendar used by the ancient Israelites is still unclear but if the Israelites did in fact keep a consistent calendar of 12 lunar months but did not
include the insertion of an intercalary month, the year would in fact be 354 days, then 480 years before Solomon‟s temple would be the year 1431BC,
just 20 years before I have calculated to be the Israelite Joseph‟s arrival into Egypt.
16 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
The Time-Span from the Year of the Exodus to Solomon’s Temple Re-examined
From the biblical book of Chronicles 6, it reveals that King Solomon was a descendant of the Tribe of Judah and that there
were twelve generations from Judah29 to King Solomon. The Old Testament is filled with repeated figures of 40 years
which many interpret to have represented the approximate lifespan of a generation. Looking again at the biblical passage
in I Kings 6 which states that the Exodus happened 480 years before King Solomon‟s 4th year of rule, we have high
confidence in the date of Solomon‟s 4th year of reign set at ca. 966 BC. Adding 480 years prior to 966 BC brings us
to1446 BC. Within Egyptian chronology, this puts us in the reign of Thutmose III. However, no archeological evidence
of the Israelites in Egypt is found and too late for a Hebrew = Hyksos Exodus because the Hyksos were expelled more
than 100 years before that. I believe the writers of the first Hebrew Torah Books really did not know how many years had
transpired from the Exodus. What they did know was that King Solomon was of the tribe of Judah and that there were 12
generations from Judah to Solomon. I believe these scribes chose the well-known and sacred number of 12 generations
from Judah to Solomon and multiplied it by another sacred number 40 as the time span of one generation giving a product
of 480 years. The great event, they knew of was “12 generations ago…” and “a generation is 40 years…” and therefore
calculated the Exodus event occurring 480 prior to Solomon‟s Temple. Once again I emphasize that the scribes were at
that time interpreting a year as being 6 months/26 weeks in length while we are mis-interpreting this year period as being
12 months/52 weeks/1 solar year in length. The definition of a “generation” is defined as the act of producing offspring
who live during the same time. Since men and women in ancient times sired children early in life, by age 20 they had
produced a new generation. A period of 40 “solar” years would be too long of a time for one generation if we calculate it
as 365 days/12 months per year vs. how earlier biblical translators and scribes wrote it down as 40 years but intending to
use the time span of 182 days/6 months per year and then multiplying 40 years twelve times. Looking at the genealogy of
Solomon, we can see that this is probably what happened:
1. JUDAH son of Jacob-Israel and the patriarch of the tribe of the “Jews”. Entered Egypt with Jacob‟s 11 sons and family of 70.
2. PHAREZ (twin son of Judah). Mother was Tamar who had previously married Judah‟s two oldest sons (Gen.38).
3. HEZRON (Ezrom). Hezron and Hamul both entered Egypt with Jacob and their father Pharez (Gen.46:12). Their descendants
were numbered in the census after the Exodus as part of the “16,560” from the family of Judah (Num. 26:22). Surely by the time of
the numbering we are more than three generations from Hezron!!!30
5. AMINADAB – his sister Elisheba married Aaron (Exo.6:23)
6. NASHON – according to the Jewish Midrash31, he initiated the Hebrews passage through the Red (Reed) Sea. Appointed by
Moses as prince and military commander he was at least 20 years old at the Sinai census (Num.1:7) but died in the second year after
the Exodus. Nashon should be an old man at this point.
7. SALMON – His age at his father‟s death would be key to the chronology but it is unknown.
8. BOAZ m. RUTH – Boaz son of Rahab the harlot of Jericho married Ruth from Moab who converted to the religion of Yahweh.
This is now a clear indication that the Israelites are in Canaan by now.
11. DAVID m. Bathsheba. – David was 30 years old when he became king and ruled 40 years. (II Sam.5:4). David succeeded King
Saul‟s son Ish-bosheth who was 40 years old when he began to reign over Israel and who reigned for two years (II Sam.2:10).
12. SOLOMON. The time that Solomon reigned over all Israel was 40 years”. (I Kgs.11:42), (*1, 2*)
29 As one of the 12 original sons of Jacob-Israel, Judah represented one of the original Patriarchs of the 12 tribes of Israel, more specifically as the
Patriarch of the “Jews”.
30 We cannot be sure if Judah himself and his son Pharez continued to sire children after they were in Egypt but for sure the progeny of the two
brothers are counted. The problem is that only two generations are between Hezron and Nashon. Hezron and Hamul, their brothers and sisters and
perhaps their father would have needed an excessive amount of wives producing children in order for the Population Growth Rate formula to reach
16,570 people for the family of Judah 4 generations later some 185 years after arriving in Egypt. Another way this population number can be true is
that since Jacob arrived in Egypt with “70 souls”, there had to be many Judahites and Israelites left behind in Canaan who did not come with him.
Two centuries later during the rebellion against Egypt and with the Canaanite homeland overrun by the Sea Peoples, perhaps many of these Israelites
traveled with the liberated Israelites and Hebrews to account for this excessive figure of more than 16,000 people of Judah alone. Perhaps not all the
Israelites in the census had been in bondage in Egypt. If the later scribes used the 40 year figure for each of the 12 generations to get 480 years, they
would have needed to not count the first five up to Nashon. Now subtracting 240 years (40 x 5), and Solomon‟s 36 years after the Temple building
now comes to 480 years – 236 years = 244 years from Solomon = 966 + 244 = 1210BC! Again very close to the two Exodus years I have calculated.
31 When Israel stood facing the Sea of Reeds before the opening of the Sea and the commandment was given to move forward, each of the tribes
hesitated, saying “we do not want to be the first to jump into the sea”. Nachshon saw what was happening and jumped into the sea. (Talmud Sotah
37a; Exodus Rabbah 13). The Seder Olam Rabbah states that Nachshon died in the second year after the Exodus during the death of the Elders.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 17
These chronological estimates of 12 generations of 40 years equaling 480 years from Exodus to Solomon were almost for
certain made by later biblical editors known as the “Priestly Source”32. A similar or exact chronological estimate would
have also been made when the “Priestly Source” writer figured that there were 12 generations of priests from Aaron to
Azariah of the House of Zadok who was the first priest to officiate at Solomon‟s Temple. This “Priestly Source” writer
would have also arrived at the 480 figure by giving each of the 12 generations 40 years. This must have been based on a
6-month year that would equate to 240 full 365-solar-day years which would lead us back in time to the year 1198BC
(958+240). However, if in fact these editors or later editors did in fact use the 480 year figure to refer to a full solar year of
12 months, this makes it more reasonable to accept that the figure of 480 years (of 365 days) was meant to include the time
the Israelites were in Egypt through the Exodus and up until the time of Solomon and that the 430 year figure was meant
to include the time the Israelites were in Canaan and Egypt. We now have the following approximate chronologies:
End of Solomon‟s reign = 930BC + 480 “solar” years prior = 1410BC = entrance of Joseph as the first Israelite in Egypt!
Solomon‟s Temple building = 966BC + 240 years prior = 1206BC = 2 years after Merenptah‟s Year 5 war against Israel et.al.
1206BC = First Exodus + 215 solar years prior (= 430 half years) = 1421 BC, the time just before Joseph‟s entrance into Egypt.
1206BC = First Exodus + 430 solar years prior = 1636BC when the Israelites entered Canaan.
The Error of the Biblical Editors
Since the Exodus no doubt occurred during the 6th generation in Judah‟s family and during the last years of Nashon‟s life,
if this is the way the scribes estimated the time between Solomon and the Exodus but computed 12 generations of 40 years
instead of 7, they were off by 200 years. Now by subtracting that amount of “solar” years from the 480 figure (-200 =
280), lets add on that amount of time to the 966 BC date and we are now in the time frame of 1246BC. That now puts us
in the middle of Ramesses II‟s reign just 33 years before Merenptah‟s reign. With this new mathematical formula, since
the chronological marker is “The Temple Building”, we must also neglect 36 of Solomon‟s 40 year reign because he
began to build the temple in Year 4 of his reign. The numerical figure the ancient scribes mis-calculated is now
approximately 236 years (480 – 236 = 244) now bringing the date of the Exodus to ca. 1210 BC. The ancient Hebrew
scribes, using either the solar year or 12 lunar months, counted 12 generations from Judah but neglected to subtract
Judah‟s generation lifetime, Judah‟s son Pharez‟s lifetime, Judah‟s grandson Ezrom‟s lifetime, Judah‟s great-grandson
Aram‟s generation lifetime and Judah‟s great–great grandson Aminadab‟s lifetime. They were not around by the time of
the Exodus! Remember, in regards to defining a generation, we are not talking about the total lifespan of each son, but the
time between the birth of one firstborn son and then the birth of his firstborn son. What was the true average time for the
birth of each son between Nashon and Solomon? If we accept the traditional biblical chronology of an Exodus ca. 1446
BC, two years before the death of Nashon, this brings us to Nashon‟s death ca. 1444BC, with no doubt that his son
Salmon is at least a young man at his father‟s death. David was anointed King in 1010BC and with a conquest of
Jerusalem by David in Year 7, ca. 1003 BC at age 37, that makes approximately 424 years between the 4 generations from
Salmon‟s life to David‟s birth (1446 – 1040) and we are forced to accept an average lifetime between each son from
Salmon to Jesse at about 106 years. The mathematics just does not add up to something most can accept. Since Nashon‟s
grandson Boaz married Ruth of Moab and Boaz‟s mother Rahab was from Jericho, this signifies that the Israelites are
deep within the Canaanite region when the judges ruled (Ruth 1:1). Since Rahab helped Joshua and the Israelites conquer
Jericho, how long has it been since the Exodus? Surely three exceptions would need to be examined here with the
acceptance of a 1446 BC Exodus:
1. When and how did the Israelites gain the opportunity to conquer Jericho and other Canaanite cities during the
18th Dynasty reigns of Thutmose III, Amenhotep II and the pharaohs that followed when Egypt completely
dominated and controlled Canaan?
2. Could a period of approximately 424 years from the life of Salmon through Boaz, through Obed through Jesse
to David‟s birth be a reasonable elapsed time period?
3. Is the time period of 40 years for a generation truly valid?
32 According to the “Documentary Hypothesis”, the Priestly Source (P), is one of four independent narrative sources from which the first five books
of the Bible – called the Pentateuch (or Torah), had been derived from earlier sources by being combined into its current composite form by historical
editors. The other three are named “Yahwist source” (J), Elohist source (E), and Deuteronomist source (D). After the breakup of the United
Kingdom, it is believed that the southern Kingdom of Judah wrote the Yahwist source and the northern Kingdom of Israel wrote the Elohist source.
This makes historical sense since the God Yahweh was prominent in Southern Canaan and the Negev region with the Kenites in the land of Midian
where Jethrowas High Priest while the god El was prominent in the north, specifically in the Ugarit/Amurru region since at least the days of the
Amarna letters as several figures from that region who corresponded with pharaoh have proto-Hebrew names in honor of the god El. More of this
will be discussed in Part 2.
18 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
Ben-Sasson has also come to the conclusion that a more realistic computation of 25 years for one generation should be
adopted (*134*). This would bring the biblical interval for 12 generations to 300 years thus having the Exodus taking
place in the mid-thirteenth century ca. 1266 BC, (966 + 300 = 1266) or 1141 BC (966 + 175 = 1141) if we don‟t count the
first five generations who died before the Exodus. Judges 11:26 mentions the interval of 300 years but does not explain
any reference points in time:
“While Israel dwelt in Heshbon and her towns, and in Aroer and her towns, and in all the cities that be
along by the coasts of Arnon, three hundred years?”
Jephthah, one of the last Judges of Israel, is speaking to the king of the Ammonites who want their land back occupied by
Israel since the time of the Israel conquest of Canaan which was supposedly 300 years prior. Jephthah was likely the 10th
of 16 judges and prophets of Israel but with no chronological anchor point for any of them, it is difficult to assign an
approximate time period of Jephthah. The best estimate I can produce comes from adding only the years given for the
judges and not the foreign rulers is 356 years from the first judge Othniel to King Saul. However, subtracting Samuel‟s
20 years as he no doubt judged during Saul and David‟s reign and subtracting at least half of Eli‟s 40 year reign as judge
as he no doubt judged during Samson and his predecessors, that now brings the figure to 316 years. This of course should
be counted as 316 “half years” from the time before Saul bringing the figure to 158 “Solar years”. Now based on a 22
year reign of Saul which began in 1032BC (+158), Othniel started his period as Judge ca. 1190BC. This would have
been some 18 – 20 years after what I have calculated to have been the first Exodus, just before Pharaoh Merenptah‟s Year
5 “Israeli Stela” and 4 years before what I have calculated to have been the third and final Exodus, both barely enough
time for Moses et.al. to leave Egypt, wander and enter Canaan to be under the rule of the King of Aram-Nahariam (likely
an Assyrian King). The 158 year figure is likely 10 – 20 years excessive but giving us an estimate that Jephthah‟s era was
some 35 – 40 years before Saul, i.e. ca. 1070BC. More detailed calculations and chronological estimates will be given in
Part 2 in the section “The Biblical Era of the Judges.”
If this same 40 year figure had been used to compute seven and one-half generations, we would get the 300 years
Jephthah speaks about (40 x 7.5 = 300), however it is more likely that the 300 year figure in this passage should be
interpreted as 300 years of 6 months in length which is 150 years of 365 days, thus if we were to use the same
computation as the suggested and more acceptable example of 20 (solar) years for a generation instead of 40, we would
come out to 20 x 7.5 = 150 years and once again the beginnings of the Israelite conquest and settlement in Canaan would
have been near the end of the 13th century BC, ca. 1220 – 1216 BC depending on whether Jephthah‟s talks with the
Ammonites were at the beginning of his 6-year reign as judge or near the end. The period of Judges is accepted by most
biblical historians as lasting close to 410 years. However, it should be realized that if the Exodus was indeed “480” years
from Solomon‟s temple which is about 80 – 90 years after the period of the Judges ended, then considering 40 years
wandering in the desert after the Exodus, the years of Joshua conquering Canaan and 8 years under the King of Aram-
Nahariam before Othniel began the era of the judges, you now have an additional 60 – 80 years before Othniel. Since
Joshua is said to have lived “110 years”, the time it took him to conquer Canaan all the way up to Hittite land has to have
taken at least a decade or two. You now have at least 140 years (80 + 60) added on to the 410 years of Judges = 550 years
and now some 70 – 80 years over the 480 years from Exodus to the Temple building creating another conflict in
chronology. More will be covered on this period of Judges subject in Part 2.
Restoration of the Sacred Texts
Since the time between the Exodus (ca.1200 BC) and the writing of the Septuagint in 270 BC, the Israelites had wandered
in the desert, conquered Canaan, survived the invasion of the Philistines ca.1030 BC, formed a United Kingdom of 12
Israelite Tribes ca. 1003BC under David, split the United Kingdom into the north and south kingdoms ca. 928BC,
followed by the northern tribes (Israel) getting conquered and deported elsewhere by three Assyrian Kings (ca.721 BC),
the southern tribes (Judah) later conquered by the Babylonians (586 BC) and carried off to Babylon, the Jews going back
to Jerusalem and re-building the temple (520 BC), surviving the Greek invasion by Alexander the Great before finally re-
grouping in 270 BC to write down the oral and written history of the Old Testament from Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew
into Greek. Surely by this time, oral tradition of telling historical stories of their ancestors with dates and places had been
difficult to remember accurately. Only four original ancient Hebrew name months – Aviv, Ziv, Bul and Ethanim could be
recalled. Names were easier to remember than the amount of years their ancestors lived, therefore estimating a timeline
was necessary and the 40-year default year for a generation was used. From the time before the divided kingdom only
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 19
one calendar was needed but after the division, Judah continued to use the calendar based on its beginning in Tishri
(Ethanim) and Israel started to use a calendar based on its beginning in Nisan (Aviv). After the exile from Babylon, both
were used in the restoration of texts with a year meant to be interpreted as a year of 6 months/182 days in regards to dates
before the First Kings of Israel. It would be a later time when editors and biblical historians would mistakenly interpret
these amount of 6-month “years” to reference a 12-month/365 day year and thereby have doubled the amount of time that
had elapsed. This mis-calculation by a factor of two in reference to the full solar year of 12 months is no doubt the most
probable error in calculating the chronology for the time of the Israelites in Egypt and the elapsed time between the
Exodus to the time of Solomon‟s Temple building historically known as 480 years instead of 240 years as we understand
the passage of time in our contemporary thinking and chronological calculations.
The translations from Hebrew into Greek were done by the Jews who no doubt had a mindset to infuse some of their
current version of morality of what they thought of their history, embellishing, exalting and post-prophesying when they
could33. Although the Masoretic manuscripts and standard Hebrew texts are astonishingly similar to the Dead Sea Scrolls,
there are some differences. For example, before the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered, we had always been told that
David‟s Goliath was a supergiant of “six cubits and a span”, (I Samuel 17:4), = 9 feet, 6 inch, but the Dead Sea Scroll
version tells us that he was a height of “four cubits and a span” = 6 feet, 6 inches! Expressing the meaning of the
scriptures in Greek had to be a difficult job in and of itself to overcome. The Septuagint version created at Alexandra,
Egypt became the most common biblical form used by the time of Jesus The Christ whose disciples used it. However, the
Septuagint was not the first time the Old Testament had to be translated and written down again. The Old Testament
stories in 2 Kings 22:8 and the Apocryphal book of Ezra tell us that books had been destroyed but also preserved. Ezra
was a Jewish scribe and Priest who led the second wave of Jews back to Jerusalem in 457 BC after Cyrus the Great
allowed the Jews to return to their homeland. In this post-Exilic period, Ezra apparently wrote a number of books and
may have had to re-write the Old Testament books that had been lost and destroyed:
“In the Ezra Apocalypse, Ezra appears to be a second Moses. It was necessary for Ezra to rewrite the
Law for the people because the people did not keep the commandments; the Law had perished.
Elsewhere it is said that the Law was burned. But Ezra not only received the revelation of the 24 books
(what we call the „Old Testament‟ or the Canonical Books), but also 70 other books, which we call the
Apocryphal Books…” (*302*)
The apocryphal book of 2 Esdras 14, (the Greco-Latin variation of the name), was written in the first century and gives an
account of how Ezra, after communicating with God for 40 days and pleading for God to “send the holy ghost to me”, had
to re-write the 204 biblical books after they had been burned or lost. Twenty-four books were to be revealed immediately
and 70 were to be revealed last to the wisest. The other 110 books are not spoken of and perhaps they were never written
as Ezra would have had to write 7 books every 3 days just to complete the 24 + 70 books within the allotted 40-day
period: “…For thy law is burnt, therefore no man knoweth the things that are done of thee, or the work that shall
begin. But if I have found grace before thee, send the Holy Ghost into me, and I shall write all that hath
been done in the world since the beginning… And it came to pass, when the forty days were filled, that the
Highest spake, saying: “Make public the twenty-four books that you wrote first, and let the worthy and
the unworthy read them, but keep the seventy that were written last, in order to give them to the wise
among your people. For in them is the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the river of
knowledge.” And I did so…” (2 Esdras 14)
To add on to the difficulty of gathering the lost scriptural history of the Israelites was the language used which the exile
by now had caused the Israelites to completely lose their native language in whatever form it had been during the divided
Monarchs of Judah and Israel. Beginning with the conquest of the Assyrian Empire, Aramaic became the official
language, replacing Akkadian which had been the standard common language and written script, the “lingua franca”, from
Egypt to Assyria for centuries. Along with the Phoenician alphabet used in writing, the language of Aramaic had spread
33 The book of Esther still remains one controversial example of how the biblical text of a book had been expanded. Esther was considered for many
centuries as canonical by some churches but non-canonical by other churches because of the un-assuredness of the editing and translation done in the
past. The Hebrew Masoretic text (MT) compiled some 1000 years after the text for the Septuagint (LXX) contained a lot less text than what was in
the LXX. The “expansions” make the Esther LXX text some 90% longer than the Hebrew MT Esther with the main feature of the LXX being the
inclusion of a religious theme in contrast to the later MT version which lacks the mentioning of God‟s name. For more insight on this see: “The LXX
Translation of Esther” – Emanuel Tov, 2008; “Esther: Juxtaposition of the Septuagint Translation with the Hebrew Text” – Hanna Kahana, 2005.
20 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
over the region of Syria, Palestine and Canaan replacing whatever proto-Hebrew language was spoken there (*321*).
Thus when the Jews returned to Jerusalem from Babylonian captivity they brought Aramaic back with them to Israel
which continued to be the native language of the Jews up until the time of Jesus The Christ and his disciples. We do
know that the sacred name of God – written as a Tetragrammaton was preserved in the original Phoenician script even in
later Aramaic, Hebrew and Greek scriptural translations. A Septuagint fragment from 50 BC and a fragment in Hebrew
from the Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls show the strict Jewish observance and transliteration of the Phoenician script for
“YHVH” in Greek and Hebrew translations. What has been called “Ancient Hebrew” is really “Canaanite Phoenician”,
a written script which had its roots in Egyptian Hieroglyphs.
At the time of the first century during the time of Jesus The Christ there were only 24 books referred to in the Hebrew
Canon34 and they must be corresponding to what 2 Esdras 14 is to referring to with Ezra the Priest who notes that the
books had been burned. When were the books burned? Did this happen during the conquest of the Israelites before they
were exiled to Assyria and then Judah to Babylon 135 years later?35 If there were no books left by the time the Jews
(Judah) and the remaining Israelites returned to their homeland in Palestine and Canaan, they would have had to re-write
their oral history. Knowing the names of their ancestors would have been a much easier task than knowing how long each
of them lived. To fill in the unknown life spans between the 12 generations from Judah to Solomon, the default
generation age of 40 was used. This default number multiplied by 12 gives us 480 years, the figure that was somehow
calculated and/or translated inaccurately as a 365-day solar year and has caused biblical historians to continue to look in
the wrong place in Egyptian history for the entry into Egypt by Joseph, his father Jacob and family of 70 and the much
later Exodus from Egypt. When Ezra led the Israelites and the Jews out of Babylon and other possible regions, those
descendants of the Northern Tribes (Israelites), like their ancestors had done, followed the calendar with the month of
Nisan representing the beginning the year while the Southern Tribes (Judah and Benjamin36) had followed the calendar, as
did their ancestors, with Ethanim (Tishri) representing the beginning of the year. Not wanting to again divide the tribes
on either northern or southern side, Ezra‟s scribes and later editors used both “New Years” resulting in a 6-month year for
all historical occurrences before the foundation of the Kingdom of Israel for about a 600 – 700 year period. That is the
only explanation I see for the reason why both the period of Judges and the period of the Exodus to Solomon‟s Temple
building appears to be twice as long as it really should be calculated. Instead of 350 years covered by the book of Judges
(*1*) it should be 175 Solar years of 365 days. Instead of 480 years from the Exodus to the building of Solomon‟s Temple,
it should be 240 Solar years of 365 days. These updated chronological calculations of 1185 BC and 1206 BC now bring us
back to the conclusion of the 19th Dynasty and there we do find the political chaos and a multiplicity of evidence for a
possible Exodus event by the Hebrews and the Israelites whereas going back to the mid-18th Dynasty reveals nothing!
The Re-Computation of the Exodus Event
The “40 year” default generation time and the start of the New Year at different times of the year by Judah and Israel are
two ways researchers have miscalculated the biblical chronology cited in I Kings 6. Now that I have reviewed these two
ways in which biblical historians have miscalculated the length of the time the Israelites spent in Egypt and the time from
the Exodus to Solomon‟s temple by a factor of two, we can now go back and zero in on the more realistic period in history
that the Exodus took place which was during the 20 – 21 year period from Year 5 of 19th Dynasty Pharaoh Merenptah to
the Year 2 “coup d‟états” by Pharaoh Setnakht, founder of Egypt‟s 20th Dynasty.
Akhenaten is given credit by historians as being the first to impose a monotheistic system as a state religion. During and
especially before the 18th dynasty ended, Polytheism was in every country. As Egyptologist Bob Brier points out: “Every
country in the world is polytheistic – many gods are worshiped. Moses is way off in the future” (*129*). For this reason,
added on to many others, is yet another reason why the Nation of Israel had not yet formed yet during the 18th Dynasty.
Militarily there was without a doubt, NO opportunity to invade and conquer Canaan but even if they had, they would have
been forced to choose an allegiance and be absorbed as a vassal state into one of these four nations who dominated
34 The book of Daniel had for many years been considered to be the Final Book of the Old Testament. The books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles
each had been split into two parts but leaving them each as one book would make a total of 24 books.
35 After the Divided Kingdom took place ca. 928BC, the Northern Tribes (Israelites) were conquered first ca. 721BC. The Southern Tribe of Judah
(Jews) and Benjamin were conquered later ca. 586BC. The captivity separation is some 135 years so it is virtually universally accepted that the
Tribes conquered by the Assyrians in 721 had been completely absorbed into Assyrian life or dissipated into surrounding countries by the time the
Jews were set free by Cyrus the Great in 539BC, some 47 years after their captivity but some 182 years after the captivity of the Northern “Israelites”
Tribes, thus the theory of “The Lost Tribes of Israel”.
36 II Chronicles 4:42 alludes to the belief that both Levi and Simeon (tribes) had immigrated to Judah because of Jeroboam‟s rebellion.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 21
Western Asia during the 18th and 19th Dynasty – Egypt, Hatti, Assyria and Babylon. The Israelites would have had to do
exactly like all of the other smaller nations and city states in the region – submit and pay tribute to one of these powerful
nations as a subordinate vassal state. In the case of Canaan, it would have been with Egypt during the 18th Dynasty as
well as during the 19th Dynasty. Other historians such as author Stephen Franklin agree on that fact:
“The earliest mention of Israel so far discovered in Egypt is on the Stele of Victory of Merneptah, the son
and successor of Ramses II. …he mentions the result of an action on his part that he apparently reserved
exclusively for the people of Israel. For it is only they that are “wasted, bare of seed.” Now if our
reconstruction of the Hebrew timeline in Egypt is even close to accurate, there is no possibility that this is
a description of the defeat of Israel in Canaan sometime after the Exodus. Canaan itself is “captive with
all woe.” Not only is there no mention of this defeat in the bible, the overwhelming military power of
Egypt held sway in Canaan during the entire reign of Ramses II, leaving no room, literally, for the
conquest by Israel of parts of that territory.” (*187*)
If my first major thesis is correct, and I believe I have provided the overwhelming proof to be such (*311*) – that Joseph
was Yuya and lived with and served the late 18th dynasty pharaohs, then the Exodus could not have happened until about
two centuries later. That time frame now places the Exodus in the late 19th dynasty. For the time period of more than 100
years from the late 18th dynasty to the conclusion of the 19th dynasty, Egypt was at war with Hatti for 66 of those years.
Two other countries in Western Asia – Assyria and Babylon, were at war with Hatti and with each other at some point
during the entire time of this period. For this reason NO OTHER NATION COULD EXIST AS A SOVEREIGN! There
is no Israel yet! These four nations totally dominated the geography of the region. The peace treaty between Hatussili III
and Ramesses II in his Year 21 in 1258 BC and other documents such as Anastasi-A Papyrus dictate the frontiers of the
territories between the two superpowers which describe Canaan, Palestine, Syria and Phoenician, naming and enumerating
these inland and coastal towns under Egyptian control. From the Negev in the south up to the Northern Lebenon
Kingdom of Byblos, including Beth Shan and Damascus was now fully an Egyptian province as agreed by the treaty.
There were attempts to break the peace between the two superpowers by Assyria when they assassinated a messenger of
Ramesses II. The Hittite king (Mursili III), responded by encouraging the Babylonian King Kadashman-Enlil II, who was
now Ramesses II‟s ally, to come to his aid to prevent the Assyrians from cutting the peaceful link between a Canaanite
province of Egypt and himself. No mention of a nation of Israel in the Canaan area is remotely mentioned in any of the
documents between Assyria, Babylon, Hatti and Egypt during this time of the reign of Ramesses II! The lands of Canaan
are mentioned numerous times in reference to the complete subjugation of the peoples who inhabited that area. Seti I,
who preceded his son Ramesses II, during Egypt‟s war against the Hittites and their allies, boasts about one of his
victorious military campaigns in Canaan, Northern Palestine and Beth Shan in what is known as Seti‟s “Beth Shan Stela”.
From his Canaan war campaign during his first year37 of reign. He speaks of subduing the land of Canaan and beyond:
“Year 1, 3rd month of the third season, day 10. Live the Horus: Mighty Bull, Appearing in Thebes,
Making the Two Lands to Live; the Two Goddesses: Repeating Births, Mighty of Arm, Repelling the Nine
Bows… Seti Mer–ne-Ptah, beloved of Re-Har-akhti, the great god… valiant leader of his army, valiant
warrior in the very heart of the fray, a Bastet terrible in combat, penetrating into a mass of Asiatics and
making them prostrate, crushing the princes of Retenu, (Canaan) reaching the (very) ends of him who
transgresses against his way. He causes to retreat the princes of Kharu (Syria), all the boastfulness of
whose mouth was (so) great. Every foreign country of the ends of the earth, their princes say: “Where
shall we go?…He does not permit the Prince of REHOB to go outside. Thereupon his majesty sent the
first army of Amun “Mighty of Bows,” to the town of HAMATH, the first arm of the Ra, “Plentiful of
Valor,” to the town of BETH-SHAN, and the first army of Seth, “Strong of Bows,” to the town of
YANOAM. When the space of a day had passed, they were overthrown to the glory of his majesty, the
King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Men-maat-Ra; the Son of Ra: Seti Mer-ne–Ptah, given life…” (*221*)
Rehob, Hamath, Beth-Shan and Yanoam are cities located between the Dead Sea and the Sea of Galilee and would later
be within the territory of the Nation of Israel. Pharaoh Seti I would surely have written about subduing “Israel” if in fact
they were a nation during his time. The Israelites regularly recorded who and how long a foreign power ruled them and
could not have experienced this type of domination and not recorded any of this if they had indeed been a nation at this
37 “Year one, third month of the third season, day 10” is the date of the stele (III Shemu 10). This equates to 17 May 1291BC (-1290) by my
chronology, just 14 days before Seti‟s Year 2 accession date.
22 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
time. Further proof that Beth-Shan was controlled by Egypt more than 100 years later up to the time of Ramesses III is
seen on the stone tablet discovered there at the Governor‟s house named Ramses Weser-Khepesh who was “The King‟s
scribe”, “Appointed chief of the house.” The stone tablet depicts Governor Ramses Weser-Khepesh kneeling before the
cartouches of Pharaoh Ramesses III who reigned ca. 1185BC to 1153BC. Ramses Weser-Khepesh is also mentioned on a
door jamb at the entrance of a temple there as “Ramesses Weser-Khepesh Commander of the troops of the Lord of the two
Lands, great steward…” (*327*). Weser-Khepesh‟s father was named Thutmose who was “captain of the troops and
overseer of foreign countries” while stationed at nearby Meggido. Clearly we can recognize that it was Egypt who had
been in complete military control of the Beth Shan region since the early years of the 18th Dynasty and that control
continued up to Pharaohs Seti I and his successors Ramesses II, Merenptah, Seti II and continued to at least the reign of
Ramesses III until the attack of the Sea Peoples. Israel is never mentioned at all, least of all as an adversary. The answer
is that the conquering of Canaan by the Israelites and the creation of the Nation of Israel is still more than one hundred
years into the future from the time of the reign of Seti I and his specific Beth-Shan military campaign and several years
after Ramesses III‟s confrontation with the Sea Peoples. As far back as some 50 – 60 years before Seti I‟s reign from the
era of the Amarna Letters, not much ethnic diversity is mentioned in the letters about Canaan. We hear of “Hittites”,
“Asiatics” and “Habiru” to the north of Canaan but in the land of Canaan, they are just called “Canaanites” which is
contrary to the multi-ethnic variations we hear of during biblical times such as the Philistines, Hivvites, Hittites, Jebusites,
Girgashites, Perizzites and others. Many of these biblical peoples mentioned alongside with the Israelites, after being
exiled from their own native lands, entered Canaan and took the opportunity to settle there when the vacuum of Egyptian
power occurred. The invasion began with a coalition of “Sea Peoples” coming from the west. One most notable “Sea
Peoples” were the Philistines!
Origin of the Philistines
Seti I‟s great-great-grandson38 Ramesses III would have to repel the second major invasion of The „Sea Peoples‟ in his
Year 8 (ca. 1177 BC) and one of the peoples ofthe attacking coalition from the Phoenician/Palestine Coast were the
“Peleset” or “Pleshet”, whom the agreed consensus among historians is that they were to become the future Philistine
peoples. Virtually all enemies who attacked Egypt in the war were defeated, annihilated, expelled back to their country
of origin or forced to re-settle elsewhere. The Peleset peoples were one of few exceptions who were defeated but were
pushed back and forced to settle in an area outside of Egypt. The Pleshet/Peleset/Philistine peoples remained in that
Canaanite coastal area and took over the land. This was their first incursion into Canaan and Palestine. Thus all biblical
references to the Philistines, who are mentioned quite often, must come after this date of Year 8 of the reign of Ramesses
III. As Donald Redford explains:
“…Even the Levant from time to time had been visited by individuals from the Ionian coast or the
Cyclades. What neither Egypt nor Palestine had experienced heretofore however was an outright
invasion of peoples from the Aegean, intent on settling down. While trade with Greece and the islands
had flourished as we have seen during the Late Bronze Age, there is not a particle of evidence to support
the contention that prior to year 8 of Ramesses III, early waves of Sea Peoples had already settled on the
coastal plain of Palestine. The invasion of year 8 was sudden and unique; and all references to
“Philistines” in the Bible must postdate it…” (*42*)
The same type of statement is made by the famous Israeli lecturer, author, columnist, film-writer and former Rabbi,
“In the biblical histories, the Philistines are said to have entered the land of Canaan from the west, from
the sea. The fact is that the Philistines were a foreign people in the Semitic near east, they were not
Semites, they were Greeks39 with a small „g‟…” (*191*)
38 It is not entirely clear to historians if 20th Dynasty pharaoh Ramesses III was genetically related to the 19th Dynasty pharaohs. Aiden Dodson gives
the explanation that Ramesses III‟s father Setnakhte, was the grandson of Ramesses II via one of his many (hundreds!) children. Ramesses II was the
son of Seti I and the name “Set”-Nakhte would fit as a name pattern for this family (*99*). Zahi Hawass signed a study in 2012 disclosing the
findings that Ramesses III had the sub-Saharan African Bantu Y-chromosome Haplogroup E1b1a pointing to a different paternal genetic line (*313*).
39 I am also including the possibility that these “Pleshet/Peleset/Philistine” peoples were descendants of Greek King Atreus of Mycenae, a
descendant of Heracles/Hurcules and the father of King Agememnon and King Menelaus of Sparta who both fought in the Trojan Wars at Troy and
other Trojan War sites. The wife of Menelaus was the famous “Helen of Troy.” Depending on the version of the Greek “Mythical” story, Atreus
had another son who was named “Plisthenides”. Another version is that Plisthenides was the youngest son of Menelaus and Helen who was taken
to Troy by Helen when she ran away to Troy with Prince Paris of Troy after a visit by him to Sparta as a guest of Menelaus. Regardless of the
parentage of Plisthenides, the time frame is congruent with perhaps having Plisthenides lead a band of Greek/Trojan warriors into Palestine and
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 23
Professor Shalom Paul Hebrew from the University of Jerusalem states the same:
“David not only defeated Goliath but defeated the Philistines, and by defeating the Philistines it was
actually the motivating force for the beginning of the history of Israel. The Philistines came from the
area of the Aegean Islands equipped with the most modern technological weapon against a relatively
small minor nation…” (*212*)
A biblical reference that alludes to the Philistines coming from another land as a remnant of the country of Caphtor is
made in Jeremiah 47:4 and Amos 9:7:
“Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? Saith the Lord. Have not I brought
up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?” (*1*)
Here we are pretty much told that BOTH the Philistines and Israelites had just immediately arrived from the two
respective countries they had inhabited either as their native land or as having sojourned there. Caphtor is earlier
referenced in Genesis 10:14 with Casluhim as “out of whom came Philistim” upon the listing of the genealogy and
offspring of Ham, son of Noah. The debate is still at hand as to where exactly the land of Caphtor was located but the
majority opinion of historians points to the Island of Crete. We now know with certainty that the Philistine‟s existence
and origin in the Levant area, specifically in the “Palestine” region, did not occur until after their invasion with the Sea
Peoples in Pharaoh Ramesses III‟s Year 8 in 1178 BC. This is additional proof that all biblical narratives of the Israelite
enemy called “Philistines”, an enemy that the Israelites could never completely defeat, did not occur until after this date.
This time after the collapse of the Bronze Age, ca. 1177 BC was now a time when the Israelites and other peoples in exile
could enter Canaan. A “World War” centered around the Mediterranean, followed by drought, famine and earthquakes
caused the movement of many other cultures besides the Israelites and Hebrews who had left Egypt40. The Great “Hekla
3” volcanic eruption, which scientists suggest erupted sometime between 1159 – 1100 BCE, may have also contributed to
a global cooling period and famine. They are peoples on the move almost for sure after a post-Trojan defeat at the
stronghold of Troy. There are women, children, oxcarts with baggage, some of these women and children are traveling
with and some are traveling without the protectorate of an army (*205*). Another famous inscription carved at Medinet
Habu by Ramesses III in his Year 8 speaks of the destruction of the Hittite Empire and the movement of peoples from
“The lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti,
Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya on being cut down…” (Ramesses III)
The Ironic historical note is that while the Israelites and Hebrews were trying to get out of Egypt, other peoples in exile
from other nations were trying to get in! With their royal palaces and administration buildings destroyed, their royal
leaders and elite class killed or driven elsewhere, there were none left with the knowledge of writing, communication,
rebuilding and farming. The international language between nations speaking different languages in the form of
cuneiform writing came to an abrupt end in the Levant after this time. The Phoenician language and early Hebrew
replaced cuneiform writing and iron replaces bronze in metal use bringing about the “Iron Age.” It was time for new
civilizations and powers to build upon the ashes of the old. The Neo-Greeks in Athens and Sparta in what we know of as
Classical Greece began to form after this time. In step the Neo-Hittites in South-Eastern Anatolia and North Syria, in step
the Phoenicians on the coast of Northern Canaan, the Philistines on the southern coast of Canaan and the Israelites
throughout the inland of Canaan:
“…there are literary traditions, which specifically state that the Sea Peoples settled Tel Dor, in the north
of what is now modern Israel. For example the Egyptian story called “The Report of Wenamun,” which
dates to the first half of the eleventh century BC, refers to Dor as a town of the Tjekker or Sikils
Egypt a few decades later as part of the second invasion of “Sea Peoples” during the reign of Ramesses III. The Peleset were the only major tribe to
permanently settle and survive in Palestine immediately after the war with Egypt. I believe that the Greek name “Plisthenides” is too similar to the
name(s) “Pleshet/Peleset/Philistine” to be ignored as a possible origin of these peoples.
40 If History is repeating itself, we may indeed be witnessing the same situation the Egyptians and other civilizations witnessed 3192 years ago. With
wars in the Middle East, we see millions of exiles in flight attempting to enter into European Nations. We have already seen the collapse of one
nation in Iraq as politically it is now controlled by the Kurds to the north, the Shia to the south and the Sunni to the west. Syria may be next. The
only cyclic phenomena that I can see with this 3192 year cycle is with the planet Uranus, known as the “planet of revolution”, which in the year
2016, with its 84.013 period of revolution around the sun will be exactly 38 revolutions since the year of 1177BC (-1176).
24 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
(Shekelesh). Another Egyptian text, the “Onomasticon of Amenemope,” which dates to ca. 1100 BC, list
the Shardana, the Tjekker and the Peleset and also mentions the sites of Ashkelon, Ashdod, and Gaza
(three of the five sites considered to be part of the Philistine “pentpolis”). Sites along the Carmel Coast
and in the Akko Valley, as well as perhaps Tel Dan, have also been suggested as having been settled by
the Sea Peoples, such as the Shardana and the Danuna41…” (*312*)
The MerenPtah stele a.k.a. “The Israeli Stele”
The Merenptah Stela represents the greatest evidence that the Exodus did not occur until after the year 1209BC which is
at least one year before the 5th year of Pharaoh MerenPtah who erected a stela dated to April of 1208BC. Merenptah
erected the stela boasting of his victory over all of the surrounding nations and peoples that had attacked Egypt in a
unified attempt to defeat Egypt. Historian William Dever is one of many who agree that this Stela proves that Israel was
not yet a nation at this time:
“There existed in Canaan by 1210 B.C. a cultural and probably political entity that called itself “Israel”
and was known to the Egyptians by that name.”
This Israel was well enough established by that time among the other peoples of Canaan to have been
perceived by Egyptian intelligence as a possible challenge to Egyptian hegemony.
This Israel did not comprise an organized state like others in Canaan, but consisted rather of loosely
affiliated peoples – that is, an ethnic group.” (*13*)
A most recent archeological narrative on the subject of the origins of the Israelites and the nation of Israel was a NOVA
film entitled “The Bible‟s Buried Secrets”, where the Israelites are identified as a people and not as a nation during this
“History proves that pharaoh‟s confident boast to be wrong. Rather than marking their annihilation,
Merneptah‟s stela announces the entrance onto the world stage of a people named Israel. This is
priceless evidence for the presence of an ethnical group called Israel in the central highlands of Southern
Canaan. …a well established Egyptian chronology gives the date as 1208 BC…” (*180*)
The translation of the hieroglyphic inscriptions that we are interested in are near the end of the Merenptah stele that deals
with his boasting of his victorious win over those who had attacked Egypt:
“…not one raises his head among the nine bows. Desolation is for Tehenu; Hatti is pacified; Plundered
is the Canaan with every evil; Carried off is Ashkelon; seized upon is Gezer; Yanoam is made as that
which does not exist; Israel is laid to waste; his seed is not; Hurru is become a widow for Egypt! All
lands together, they are pacified…”
This is the earliest reference anywhere about “Israel” outside of the Hebrew Judeo-Christian Bible. The mention of Israel
here pre-dates archeological finds mentioning Israel as a specific group of peoples by at least two hundred years. I will
now explain the reason why all of the other geographical places MerenPtah named were known as “foreign Nations or
City States” while Israel in the Stela is mentioned as “an ethnic group of peoples”. All Egyptologist agree that the names
of Ashkelon, Gezer and Yanoam refer to city states in Canaan as shown by the “determinative sign”42 of a throw stick =
“foreign” or “foreign enemy” and “three hills” to signify lands, countries and city states outside of Egypt. The example of
41 The “Danuna” or “Denyen” are also mentioned in the Onomasticon of Amenemope. Ramesses III also mentions them in his Medinet Habu south
Stela as attacking Egypt with the Tjeker, Peleset, Weshesh and Shekelesh in his Year 12. The Denyen/Danuna have been historically identified by
many as the Greek “Danaoi” who may have settled in SE Turkey. Danuna-Adana is a city on the Seyhan River, 30 km inland from the
Mediterranean Sea. Danuna therefore must be this area during the time frame of the Amarna Letters because the Danuna are mentioned in EAs 122,
123 and 151, as being on Rib-Hadda‟s side during the war with Egypt against Hittite King Suppiluliuma. When Rib-Hadda and Abi-Milku speak
about the king of Danuna from the Ugarit family Dnn, this name is transcribed in syllabic cuneiform as Dananu. Other historians believe that the
Denyen are associated with the Israelite Tribe of Dan.
42 Egyptian hieroglyphs represented many different words. Complicating the Egyptian writing system was the lack of vowels in their system. A
determinative picture notifies the reader which word is to be used. For example if the transliteration to English were the two consonants “BG”, it
could be bag or beg or big or bug. If you saw a picture of a beetle next to the “BG” then you would know it represented an insect determinative and
knew that the word to be used was “BUG”. Egyptians wrote their texts from both left to right and from right to left as well as up to down.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 25
the text speaking about the city-state Ashkelon displays the three-hill symbol. The name of Israel however, is a throw
stick followed by a different sign: “MAN + WOMAN + THREE STROKES”.
The determinative symbol for “foreign land or nation” is a THREE-HILL hieroglyph. The
determinative symbol for “ethnic peoples” is a MAN AND A WOMAN and THREE
STROKES to indicate plurality with NO three-hill foreign land hieroglyph determinative!!!
Libya received the 3-hill sign as did „Ashkelon‟, a city–state and „Canaan‟, a well-known geographic region where an
unspecified number of city-states and ethnic groups lived received the three hill symbol. As the Egyptian scribes wrote
from left to right AND from right to left, both are represented here with the “Israelite Peoples” hieroglyphs. The
hieroglyphic sign that looks like a hockey stick is the throw-stick sign for “enemy” which is here written next to the man
and woman and written next to the three-hill-sign for the other enemy countries and city states.
This determinative given to Ysrir/Ysrael/Israel43 refers to a group of “PEOPLES” in contrast to a nation-state or foreign
country because the three strokes represent the „plural‟ sign and tell us that it is men and women who are the subject. This
sign cannot be read as indicating that Israel was a nation yet.
“...The Israelites are referred to once only by name in Egyptian texts, on a stela of the time of Merneptah,
written after the Libyan campaign of c.1220. There the name is given without the determinative for „country‟,
so it would appear that at that time the Israelites were still wanderers without a permanent home.” (*205*)
What we can deduce from this story is that a group of “Israelites” joined in on the great „Canaanite/Anatolian‟ war
coalition to attack Egypt and lost. One of the methods of Egyptian battle victory was to cut off the defeated enemy‟s hand
and/or uncircumcised male genitals! Is this what happened to the Israelite combatants who joined in? If so, this would be
what Pharaoh Merenptah meant when he wrote “their seed is no more!” Other historians believe the term is in reference
to grain as in the seed of food supply. Merenptah‟s message he inscribed on 19 April 1208 BC is clear – there was no
nation of Israel but there were a group of “peoples” called “Israelites” who joined in on the attack against Egypt!
43 The overwhelming majority of historians and translators unquestionably agree that the Egyptian word is referred to „Israel‟ as the Hebrew
language consonants are translated as לארשי (Hebrew reads right to left but reversing it yields): ישראל (Y+S+R+E+L) with a vowel indication after .(R) ר
26 Akhenaten and Biblical Joseph: Bringers of Monotheism to Egypt – by R. Jacquet-Acea
MerenPtah succeeded his father Ramesses II „The Great‟ and reigned for 9 years and 9 months (*315*) from August
1213BC to March or April of 1203BC44. He had inherited both his father‟s fortunes and his father‟s troublesome
entanglements which included the Hebrews (Habiru) he had kept in captivity in order to have them build his capital city of
Pi-Ramesses and the nearby city of Pi-Thom. These Hebrews whose ancestors had been kept in captivity since the days
of King Tut along with their Israelite kinsmen were now in full rebellion against Egypt and now fighting on the side of
those against Egypt which included the Greeks of the Sea Peoples, the Canaanites, Hittites, Assyrians, Anatolians and
others fighting with them in the Trojan War against Egypt. Merenptah‟s son Seti II is fighting on the side of the Greeks
and Sea Peoples who eventually turn against Egypt during the reign of Ramesses III. This internal conflict where part of
Egypt fought for the Trojans and another part of Egypt fought for the Greeks set the stage for Civil War and the contest
for the throne of Egypt between two rival family lines, first between Seti II and Amenmesses and 15 years later between
Twosret and Setnakht.
In the Part 2, we shall zero in on the correct time period that the Hebrews and Israelites made their exile out of Egypt. It
is during this period of time at the conclusion of Egypt‟s 19th Dynasty that we will find 16 markers of the Exodus. There
appears to be at least two times and quite possibly three times a mass Exodus out of Egypt occurred, all coming after the
defeat in war at the hands of three different Egyptian Pharaohs within a 21 year period. It was a time of great turmoil and
internal struggle, not just for Egypt but for the entire Mediterranean region when war, famine, invasion and earthquakes
rocked the area from the Aegean to Western Asia bringing about the collapse of the Bronze Age. This collapse of
previous civilizations allowed for a new beginning of certain cultures and nations, one which was Israel.
44 Proof of Pharaoh MerenPtah reigning at this time comes from Grafitto at Thebes making the following statement – “Year 1, 3rd month of Akhet,
day 3, (on) this day of the descent made by the water of the great Nile (= inundation) King of the Two Lands, Baenra, L.P.H.” and another with
the exact message dated “Year 2, 3rd month of Akhet, Day 3…” proves that the beginning of the Nile inundation was occurring at this time in history
during the months of Akhet. The III Akhet 3 (1213-1212 BC) dates translate to the Julian calendar date of August 23 (Gregorian August 12th). Since
the Egyptian Calendar takes 1461 years to repeat itself and the inundation during the 2nd century AD also was occurring in the Akhet months, this
proves that MerenPtah ruled during the 13th century BC and not some 300 years later in the 10th century BC as some researchers such as David Rohl
(*170, 199*) have determined.
Re-calculating the Historical Age of the Israelites in Egypt and the Date of the Exodus (pt.1) – by R. Jacquet-Acea 27
(*1*) Zodhiates, Spiros Th.D., “The Hebrew–Greek Key Study Bible”. Baker book house publishers, 1985.
(*2*) Milner, W.M.H. – “The Heritage of the Anglo–Saxon Race.” The genealogy of the Royal Houses of
Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Scandinavian and the House of David being traced back to the tribe of Judah, one of the
original 12 tribes of Israel. From “The Royal House of Britain” by the Reverend W. M. H. Milner, M.A.,
F.R.G.S., A.V.I.”, Vicar of Westminster-Cum-Sewstern, Lincs. First published in 1902 under the auspices of the
(*8*) Fletcher, Joann: “Chronicle of a Pharaoh – The intimate life of Amenhotep III”. Oxford University
(*9*) Kimball, Glenn and Chase, “Joseph: The Vizier of Egypt.” Bob Karp Production, 2006.
(*11*) Moran, William (edited and translated by). “The Armana Letters”. John Hopkins University Press,
1992. Originally published as “Les Lettres d‟El-Amarna”, 1987.
(*13*) Dever, William G. “Who were the early Israelites?” (William B. Erdmans Publishing Co., Grand
Rapids Mi., 2003) (see pages 128 and 236 for more info on early Yahweh beliefs.)
(*22*) Ginzberg, Louis. “The Legends of the Jews: from Joseph to the Exodus”, Volume Two, translated
by Henrietta Szold. John Hopkins University Press, 1998.
(*42*) Redford, Donald B., “Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times”, Princeton University Press, 1992.
(*79*) Wallace-Murphy, Tim and Marilyn Hopkins. “Custodians of Truth”. Published by Weiser, 2005.
(*93*) Brown, Chip. “The King Her–self: What motivated Hatshepsut to Rule Ancient Egypt as a Man?”;
National Geographic Magazine April 2009, pages 88 – 111.
(*99*) Dodson, Aidan and Dyan Hilton. “The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt”. Thames &
Hudson, London. 2004.
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